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Diacylglycerol (DAG) lipase activity is required for axonal growth during development and for retrograde synaptic signaling at mature synapses. This enzyme synthesizes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), and the CB1 cannabinoid receptor is also required for the above responses. We now report on the cloning and enzymatic characterization of(More)
Following nerve injury, axons in the CNS do not normally regenerate. It has been shown that CNS myelin inhibits neurite outgrowth, though the nature of the molecules responsible for this effect are not known. Here, we demonstrate that the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a transmembrane protein of both CNS and PNS myelin, strongly inhibits neurite(More)
Cell contact-dependent neurite outgrowth stimulated by CAMs requires activation of a second messenger pathway that requires the function of a tyrosine kinase upstream from calcium influx into neurons. In the present study, we present evidence that implicates activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) in the pathway underlying neurite(More)
We present T ALplanner, a forward-chaining planner based on the use of domain-dependent search control knowledge represented as formulas in the Temporal Action Logic TAL. TAL is a narrative based linear metric time logic used for reasoning about action and change in incompletely speciied dynamic environments. TAL is used as the formal semantic basis for(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 is a serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in several aspects in embryonic development and several growth factor signaling cascades. We now report that an inactive phosphorylated pool of the enzyme colocalizes with F-actin in both neuronal and nonneuronal cells. Semaphorin 3A (Sema 3A), a molecule that inhibits(More)
We present evidence that the morphoregulatory activities of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and N-cadherin involve activation of intracellular second messenger pathways. PC12 cells were cultured on monolayers of control 3T3 cells or 3T3 cells expressing transfected N-cadherin or NCAM. NCAM and N-cadherin directly induced a transcription-independent(More)
We have used monolayers of control 3T3 fibroblasts and 3T3 fibroblasts expressing transfected cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)--NCAM, N-cadherin, and L1--as a culture substrate for cerebellar neurones. The transfected CAMs promote neurite outgrowth by activating a second messenger pathway that culminates in calcium influx into neurones through N- and L-type(More)
NCAM, L1, and DCC--immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecules (Ig CAMs)--are widely expressed during development. Many workers have dismissed a role for such molecules in the control of axonal growth and guidance because they do not show highly restricted expression patterns. Yet evidence from a number of model systems suggests all three CAMs play a role in the(More)
We have used monolayers of control 3T3 cells and 3T3 cells transfected with a cDNA encoding human N-CAM as a culture substrate for embryonic chick retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). At embryonic day 6 (E6), but not at E11, RGCs extended longer neurites on monolayers of N-CAM-transfected cells. This loss of RGC responsiveness was not associated with substantial(More)