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Diacylglycerol (DAG) lipase activity is required for axonal growth during development and for retrograde synaptic signaling at mature synapses. This enzyme synthesizes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), and the CB1 cannabinoid receptor is also required for the above responses. We now report on the cloning and enzymatic characterization of(More)
Following nerve injury, axons in the CNS do not normally regenerate. It has been shown that CNS myelin inhibits neurite outgrowth, though the nature of the molecules responsible for this effect are not known. Here, we demonstrate that the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a transmembrane protein of both CNS and PNS myelin, strongly inhibits neurite(More)
Cell contact-dependent neurite outgrowth stimulated by CAMs requires activation of a second messenger pathway that requires the function of a tyrosine kinase upstream from calcium influx into neurons. In the present study, we present evidence that implicates activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) in the pathway underlying neurite(More)
A number of experimental paradigms have been used to demonstrate that NCAM, N-cadherin, and L1 stimulate axonal growth. The molecular basis of this response has been extensively studied and a range of agents that inhibit neurite outgrowth stimulated by the above CAMs, but not integrins, have now been identified. These studies pointed to the activation of a(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 is a serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in several aspects in embryonic development and several growth factor signaling cascades. We now report that an inactive phosphorylated pool of the enzyme colocalizes with F-actin in both neuronal and nonneuronal cells. Semaphorin 3A (Sema 3A), a molecule that inhibits(More)
We present T ALplanner, a forward-chaining planner based on the use of domain-dependent search control knowledge represented as formulas in the Temporal Action Logic TAL. TAL is a narrative based linear metric time logic used for reasoning about action and change in incompletely speciied dynamic environments. TAL is used as the formal semantic basis for(More)
NCAM, L1, and DCC--immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecules (Ig CAMs)--are widely expressed during development. Many workers have dismissed a role for such molecules in the control of axonal growth and guidance because they do not show highly restricted expression patterns. Yet evidence from a number of model systems suggests all three CAMs play a role in the(More)
During development of the nervous system, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) promote cell migration and axonal growth; yet, at other times, CAMs inhibit these events by maintaining stable adhesion between cells. In the present review, we consider recent results that help to explain the paradoxical findings that individual CAMs can both promote and inhibit(More)
Cerebellar neurons, cultured on monolayers of 3T3 fibroblasts or on a polylysine/extracellular matrix-coated substratum, responded to a soluble recombinant L1-Fc chimera by extending longer neurites than controls. The response was inhibited by pretreating neurons with antibodies to L1 or antibodies to the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor. The(More)