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This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being involved in a secondary phase that may dramatically(More)
The heat shock response (HSR) is essential to survive acute proteotoxic stress and has been studied extensively in unicellular organisms and tissue culture cells, but to a lesser extent in intact metazoan animals. To identify the regulatory pathways that control the HSR in Caenorhabditis elegans, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen and identified 59(More)
Nuclear receptor activation in liver leads to coordinated alteration of the expression of multiple gene products with attendant phenotypic changes of hepatocytes. Peroxisome proliferators including endogenous fatty acids, environmental chemicals, and drugs induce a multi-enzyme metabolic response that affects lipid and fatty acid processing. We studied the(More)
biological granularity underpinning definitions of toxicity pathways. The path forward clearly requires use of multiple approaches for identifying targets of toxicity and the methods for querying how biological perturbations of these targets lead to toxic responses. Several recent initiatives show different approaches for using pathway information in safety(More)
The Human Toxome Project, funded as an NIH Transformative Research grant 2011-2016, is focused on developing the concepts and the means for deducing, validating and sharing molecular pathways of toxicity (PoT). Using the test case of estrogenic endocrine disruption, the responses of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells are being phenotyped by transcriptomics and(More)
As part of a larger effort to provide proof-of-concept in vitro-only risk assessments, we have developed a suite of high-throughput assays for key readouts in the p53 DNA damage response toxicity pathway: double-strand break DNA damage (p-H2AX), permanent chromosomal damage (micronuclei), p53 activation, p53 transcriptional activity, and cell fate (cell(More)
We provide an overview of computational systems biology approaches as applied to the study of chemical- and drug-induced toxicity. The concept of "toxicity pathways" is described in the context of the 2007 US National Academies of Science report, "Toxicity testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy." Pathway mapping and modeling based on network(More)
The twenty-first century vision for toxicology involves a transition away from high-dose animal studies to in vitro and computational models (NRC in Toxicity testing in the 21st century: a vision and a strategy, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2007). This transition requires mapping pathways of toxicity by understanding how in vitro systems(More)
A major goal of systems biology is to understand how organism-level behavior arises from a myriad of molecular interactions. Often this involves complex sets of rules describing interactions among a large number of components. As an alternative, we have developed a simple, macro-level model to describe how chronic temperature stress affects reproduction in(More)
In this issue of Archives for Toxicology, Jennings et al. (2012) provide a review of transcriptional regulation associated with perturbation of a variety of biological pathways by chemicals. The review focuses on specific transcriptional regulatory networks activated by what the authors refer to as ''transcription factor-governed molecular pathways.'' We(More)