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Since the cloning of the first γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (GAT1; SLC6A1) from rat brain in 1990, more than 50 published studies have provided structure-function information on investigator-designed rat and mouse GAT1 mutants. To date, more than 200 of 599 GAT1 residues have been subjected to mutagenesis experiments by substitution with different… (More)
BACKGROUND Efforts to predict functional sites from globular proteins is increasingly common; however, the most successful of these methods generally require structural insight. Unfortunately, despite several recent technological advances, structural coverage of membrane integral proteins continues to be sparse. ConSequently, sequence-based methods… (More)
The variability within calculated protein residue pKa values calculated using Poisson-Boltzmann continuum theory with respect to small conformational fluctuations is investigated. As a general rule, sites buried in the protein core have the largest pKa fluctuations but the least amount of conformational variability; conversely, sites on the protein surface… (More)
Seven commercial composite filling materials were studied as regards 1) differences in their ability to take a smooth polish as measured by an electronic roughness gauge and 2) their relative loss in smoothness due to toothbrushing. A series of test formulations indicated that polishability and ability to retain a good polish are interrelated and are… (More)
The chemical principles and physical properties of a new composite system, which apparently cures in a two-step process to allow time for hand carving to the proper anatomic contours, are described. The new material appears to have better in vitro wear resistance than an older composite filling material.