Patrick D. Gerard

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Forestland application of poultry manure offers an alternative to the conventional practice of pastureland application. Before such a practice is considered viable, however, it must be demonstrated that the forest ecosystem is capable of absorbing the nutrients contained in poultry manure, especially nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). From the forestry(More)
The distribution of phytophagous stink bugs and associated boll injury in margins of cotton fields bordering various agronomic crops and woodlands were studied in 2007 and 2008. Two commercial cotton fields, ranging in size from 7.8 to 12.1 ha in Barnwell and Lee Counties, SC, were sampled weekly each year along predetermined transects at 0, 5, 10, and 25 m(More)
The effects of dietary fat and eggshell cuticle removal on egg water loss, embryo growth, and hatchability were determined in eggs from broiler breeder hens at different ages. Hens were fed isocaloric diets containing one of three different types and levels of added fat. In addition, eggs were either left intact or washed to remove the eggshell cuticle(More)
Flavor variability and stability of U.S.-produced whole milk powder (WMP) are important parameters for maximizing quality and global competitiveness of this commodity. This study characterized flavor and flavor stability of domestic WMP. Freshly produced (<1 mo) WMP was collected from 4 U.S. production facilities 5 times over a 1 y period. Each sample was(More)
The relative proportions and relationships of pipping muscle and liver nutrients in broiler embryos on d 15 and 19 of incubation were determined. Ninety hatching eggs obtained from a 30-wk-old broiler breeder flock were incubated on 3 replicate tray levels (30 eggs per tray) for 19 d. On 15 and 19 d of incubation, 10 live embryos per tray level were(More)
Chitosan is a biopolymer that exhibits osteoconductive, enhanced wound healing and antimicrobial properties which make it attractive for use as a bioactive coating to improve osseointegration of orthopaedic and craniofacial implant devices. Coatings made from 91.2% de-acetylated chitosan were chemically bonded to titanium coupons via silane-glutaraldehyde(More)
The effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation during the pullet period on the subsequent performance and egg characteristics of commercial Single Combed White Leghorn hens were evaluated. In two trials, BW, feed consumption, egg production (EP), egg weight, egg size class, relative eggshell water vapor conductance, and relative(More)
The Heron Lake System historically has been an important resource for waterfowl in Southern Minnesota, USA. In the early 1900s, the system was a major nesting, feeding, and staging area for breeding and migrating waterfowl mainly due to the extensive growth of sago pondweed, Stuckenia pectinata. In recent years, the abundance of S. pectinata has decreased(More)
We propose a test, like the classical sign test, of whether the probability of an event differs from 0.5 that is appropriate with clustered binary data. It combines a permutation approach and an exact parametric bootstrap calculation. Simulation studies show it to be superior to a sign test based on aggregated cluster level data. The new test is more(More)
Effects of 2 supplemental concentrations of dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY), and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] on the gross digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG inoculations were(More)