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INTRODUCTION Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is an uncommon congenital failure of forebrain development. Although the aetiology is heterogeneous, chromosomal abnormalities or a monogenic defect are the major causes, accounting for about 40% to 50% of HPE cases. At least 7 genes have been positively implicated, including SHH, ZIC2, SIX3, TGIF, PTCH1, GLI2, and(More)
OBJECTIVE Analyze indications and type of prenatal diagnostic procedures performed. METHOD This retrospective audit was conducted at a dedicated fetal medicine center in Petaling Jaya. All invasive prenatal diagnosis procedures performed from 2003 up until 2010 (amniocentesis, chorionic villous sampling and fetal blood sampling) were analyzed. RESULT A(More)
The t(11;22) rearrangement is the most common recurrent familial reciprocal translocation in man. Heterozygote carriers are phenotypically normal but are at risk of subfertility in the male, miscarriages, and producing chromosomally unbalanced offspring. The unbalanced progeny usually results from an extra der(22) chromosome resulting from a 3:1(More)
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