Patrick Cartlidge

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A mature epidermis is an effective barrier which prevents dehydration from the loss of body water, poisoning from the absorption of noxious substances, and systemic infection from invading surface microorganisms. The epidermal barrier resides within the most superficial layer of the skin, the stratum corneum. In utero the fetus has no need for a skin(More)
AIM To investigate the quality of perinatal and infant necropsies and assess the relation between the quality and value of this investigation in different outcome groups. METHODS Cohort analysis of 540 deaths during 1993 of babies between 20 weeks' gestation and one year of age born to women usually resident in Wales. Cases were identified from the All(More)
Maternal smoking rates in pregnancy have declined, particularly in the non-manual social classes, and perinatal mortality rates have fallen over the last 20 years. We have therefore re-evaluated the relationship between maternal cigarette smoking and pregnancy outcome against this background. A total of 608 stillbirths and 634 infant deaths were identified(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the relation between the timing of birth and the occurrence of death related to an intrapartum event. DESIGN Analysis of 107,206 births to Welsh residents in 1993-5, including 608 cases of stillbirth and 407 of neonatal death identified in the all Wales perinatal survey, the cause of death classified with the clinicopathological(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate differences in risk of categories and causes of death before 1 year of age between rural and urban areas. METHODS Population-based ecological study using Poisson regression analysis of data from all enumeration districts in Wales. Data included all 243,223 registrable births to women resident in Wales, 809 therapeutic and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine in a geographically defined population 1 year survival of infants with a birthweight of less than 1500 g or gestational age less than 32 weeks, and to establish the effect of postnatal age on predicted survival. DESIGN Cohort analysis of 72,427 births to Welsh residents in 1993-94. Deaths were identified using the All Wales(More)
AIMS To investigate the relation between social deprivation and causes of stillbirth and infant mortality. METHODS Stillbirths and infant deaths in 6347 enumeration districts in Wales were linked with the Townsend score of social deprivation. In 1993-98 there were 211 072 live births, 1147 stillbirths, and 1223 infant deaths. Poisson regression analysis(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the value of the second neonatal examination as a medical surveillance procedure. DESIGN Prospective survey of routine neonatal examinations and the abnormalities identified during 8 March-30 June 1988. SETTING Maternity unit with an annual birth rate of 5700. SUBJECTS For first neonatal examination: 1795 babies born in the unit(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the contribution that perinatal and infant necropsy makes to clinical practice and to see how this might be influenced by the quality of the investigation. DESIGN Cohort analysis, with data from the all Wales perinatal survey, of perinatal and infant deaths during 1993 of babies born to mothers usually resident in Wales. The(More)