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Enterprises develop procedures to address focuses in any case. However, procedures result often in sub-optimal solutions for any specific focus. As a consequence, each actor develops his own practice to address a focus in a given context, focus and its context being particular and specific. The modeling of practices is not an easy task because there are as(More)
text? How can the notion of context be modeled? How can context be encapsulated in knowledge representation formalisms? What are the cog-nitive aspects linked to the notion of context? How does context influence A dvances in multidisciplinary research are leading toward a new generation of intelligent assistant systems (IASs) that are context sensitive (for(More)
Context appears in Artificial Intelligence (AI) as a challenge for the coming years as shown by the various scientific events focusing on context held since 1995. However, context is already considered in other domains, such as Natural Language Processing, although through few aspects of context. We present in this paper a survey of the literature dealing(More)
Context is the challenge for the coming years in Artificial Intelligence. In the companion paper [8], we present the main results of discussions at two workshops and at the first conference focusing on the notion of context. In this paper, we present a view of how context is considered in knowledge acquisition, machine learning, communication, and databases(More)
Over the last ten years a community on context has emerged. Brézillon (1999) proposed a survey of the literature about context in artificial intelligence. There is a now series of conference on context, a web site and a mailing list. The number of web pages with the word " context " has been multiply by ten in the last five years. Being among the(More)
Context is the challenge for the coming years in Artificial Intelligence (AI). In the companion paper [6], we present a view of how context is considered through the literature in various domains. In this paper, we present the main results of discussions at some workshops and the first conference focusing on the notion of context. We point out the(More)
Contextual Graphs are a context-based formalism used in various real-world applications. They allow a uniform representation of elements of reasoning and of contexts for describing different human tasks such as troubleshooting and interpretation. A contextual graph represents a task realization. Its paths represent the different ways of reaching this(More)
One of the main characteristics of a subway line is its large transport capacity (e.g., about 60000 travelers per hour in the Parisian subway) combined with a regular transport supply. The regularity is particularly important at rush time – peak hours – when an incident can provoke important delays. Experience shows that the consequences of an incident are(More)