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Dopamine and the Neostriatum A major target for midbrain dopaminergic neurons is the neostriatum (Figure 2). Compared to other brain regions, the neostriatum is remarkably homogeneous. About 95% of all neostriatal neurons have a similar morphology and are referred to as medium-sized spiny neurons. They are the only known projection neurons in the(More)
Increases in type 1 phosphatase (PP1) activity have been observed in end stage human heart failure, but the role of this enzyme in cardiac function is unknown. To elucidate the functional significance of increased PP1 activity, we generated models with (i) overexpression of the catalytic subunit of PP1 in murine hearts and (ii) ablation of the PP1-specific(More)
Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a multifunctional enzyme with diverse roles in the nervous system, including regulation of synaptic activity and dendritic morphology. PP1 activity is controlled via association with a family of regulatory subunits that govern subcellular localization and substrate specificity. A previously undescribed class of PP1-binding(More)
Estrogen (E) treatment induces axospinous synapses in rat hippocampus in vivo and in cultured hippocampal neurons in vitro. To better explore the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we have established a mouse model for E action in the hippocampus by using Golgi impregnation to examine hippocampal dendritic spine morphology,(More)
Signalling by G proteins is controlled by the regulator of G-protein signalling (RGS) proteins that accelerate the GTPase activity of Galpha subunits and act in a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-specific manner. The conserved RGS domain accelerates the G subunit GTPase activity, whereas the variable amino-terminal domain participates in GPCR recognition.(More)
The noradrenergic system in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in many physiological and psychological processes, including working memory and mood control. To understand the functions of the noradrenergic system, we examined the regulation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs), key players in cognition and emotion, by alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors(More)
Arrestin regulates almost all G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signaling and trafficking. We report that the multidomain protein, spinophilin, antagonizes these multiple arrestin functions. Through blocking G protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) association with receptor-Gbetagamma complexes, spinophilin reduces arrestin-stabilized receptor(More)
The axonal shafts of neurons contain bundled microtubules, whereas extending growth cones contain unbundled microtubule filaments, suggesting that localized activation of microtubule-associated proteins (MAP) at the transition zone may bundle these filaments during axonal growth. Dephosphorylation is thought to lead to MAP activation, but specific molecular(More)
Despite improved immunosuppressive therapy, surgical resection is still often required for uncontrolled inflammatory disease and the stenosing and perforating complications of Crohn's disease. However, surgery is not curative. A majority of patients develop disease recurrence at or above the anastomosis. Subclinical endoscopically identifiable recurrence(More)
While studies have shown that estrogen affects hippocampal spine density and function, behavioral studies in humans and nonhuman primates have also implicated the prefrontal cortex in the effects of estrogen on cognition. However, the potential for similar estrogen-induced increases in spines and synapses in the prefrontal cortex has not been investigated(More)