Patrick Achard

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Plants live in fixed locations and survive adversity by integrating growth responses to diverse environmental signals. Here, we show that the nuclear-localized growth-repressing DELLA proteins of Arabidopsis integrate responses to independent hormonal and environmental signals of adverse conditions. The growth restraint conferred by DELLA proteins is(More)
Floral initiation and floral organ development are both regulated by the phytohormone gibberellin (GA). For example, in short-day photoperiods, the Arabidopsis floral transition is strongly promoted by GA-mediated activation of the floral meristem-identity gene LEAFY. In addition, anther development and pollen microsporogenesis depend on GA-mediated(More)
Plants have evolved robust mechanisms to respond and adapt to unfavorable environmental conditions, such as low temperature. The C-repeat/drought-responsive element binding factor CBF1/DREB1b gene encodes a transcriptional activator transiently induced by cold that controls the expression of a set of genes responding to low temperature (the CBF regulon).(More)
In Arabidopsis, the flagellin-derived peptide flg22 elevates antibacterial resistance [1] and inhibits growth [2] upon perception via the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase Flagellin-Sensitive 2 (FLS2) [3]. DELLA proteins are plant growth repressors whose degradation is promoted by the phytohormone gibberellin [4]. Here, we show that DELLA(More)
Plant growth is adaptively modulated in response to environmental change. The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) promotes growth by stimulating destruction of the nuclear growth-repressing DELLA proteins [1-7], thus providing a mechanism for environmentally responsive growth regulation [8, 9]. Furthermore, DELLAs promote survival of adverse environments [8].(More)
The ubiquitin proteasome system is a key regulator of many biological processes in all eukaryotes. This mechanism employs several types of enzymes, the most important of which are the ubiquitin E3 ligases that catalyse the attachment of polyubiquitin chains to target proteins for their subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. Among the E3 families, the(More)
Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are tetracyclic diterpenoid plant hormones that promote important processes of plant growth and development, such as seed germination, growth through elongation, and floral transition. Thus, mutant plants that are affected in GA biosynthesis or signalling exhibit altered seed germination and, at the adult stage, are dwarf and(More)
Phytohormones regulate plant development via a poorly understood signal response network. Here, we show that the phytohormone ethylene regulates plant development at least in part via alteration of the properties of DELLA protein nuclear growth repressors, a family of proteins first identified as gibberellin (GA) signaling components. This conclusion is(More)
Plant growth involves the integration of many environmental and endogenous signals that together with the intrinsic genetic program determine plant size. At the cellular level, growth rate is regulated by the combined activity of two processes: cell proliferation and expansion. Gibberellins (GA) are plant-specific hormones that play a central role in the(More)
Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones involved in the regulation of plant growth in response to endogenous and environmental signals. GA promotes growth by stimulating the degradation of nuclear growth-repressing DELLA proteins. In Arabidopsis thaliana, DELLAs consist of a small family of five proteins that display distinct but also overlapping functions in(More)