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BACKGROUND It is not known whether those with co-morbid fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autism represent a distinct subtype of FXS; whether the especially severe cognitive delays seen in studies of young children with co-morbid FXS and autism compared with those with only FXS continue into adolescence and young adulthood; and whether autism in those with FXS(More)
Mutations in the LRRK2 gene, coding for dardarin, cause dominantly inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). Dardarin is a large protein, and mutations are found throughout the gene including the kinase domain. However, it is not clear if kinase activity is important for the damaging effects of pathogenic mutations. In this study, we noted two cellular phenotypes(More)
A major barrier to research on Parkinson's disease is inaccessibility of diseased tissue for study. One solution is to derive induced pluripotent stem cells from patients and differentiate them into neurons affected by disease. Triplication of SNCA, encoding α-synuclein, causes a fully penetrant, aggressive form of Parkinson's disease with dementia.(More)
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are a common cause of familial and apparently sporadic Parkinson disease. LRRK2 is a multidomain protein kinase with autophosphorylation activity. It has previously been shown that the kinase activity of LRRK2 is required for neuronal toxicity, suggesting that understanding the mechanism of kinase activation(More)
We describe 3 new families affected by Alzheimer's disease with spastic paraparesis. In affected individuals, including the earliest known patient with this clinical syndrome, neuropathological examination revealed large "cotton wool" plaques similar to those we have previously described in a Finnish family. In the families in which DNA was available,(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) has long been considered to be a sporadic entity, perhaps with an environmental etiology. However, recent genetic discoveries have challenged this view, as there are many families with diseases of Mendelian inheritance that clinically resemble PD. Here, we will review in detail the neuropathological data relating to familial cases(More)
We report a kindred with three cases of dementia. The proband presented with forgetfulness and personality changes at age 56, followed shortly thereafter by behavioral dyscontrol, hyperphagia, hypersexuality, delusions, illusions, disinhibition and double incontinence. Neuroimaging studies were consistent with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In one allele,(More)
Mutations in Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the leading genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is predicted to contain kinase and GTPase enzymatic domains, with recent evidence suggesting that the kinase activity of LRRK2 is central to the pathogenic process associated with this protein. The GTPase domain of LRRK2 plays an important role(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) represents a major challenge for health care systems around the world: it is the most common degenerative movement disorder of old age, affecting over 100,000 people in the UK alone (Schrag et al., 2000). Despite the remarkable success of treatments directed at potentiating or replacing dopamine within the brain, which can relieve(More)
We report a British family with young-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) and a G51D SNCA mutation that segregates with the disease. Family history was consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance as both the father and sister of the proband developed levodopa-responsive parkinsonism with onset in their late thirties. Clinical features show similarity to those(More)