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We present a new methodology to detect and characterize sleep spindles (SSs), based on the nonlinear algorithms, empirical-mode decomposition, and Hilbert-Huang transform, which provide adequate temporal and frequency resolutions in the electroencephalographic analysis. In addition, the application of fuzzy logic allows to emulate expert's procedures.(More)
Evoked potentials provide noninvasive measures of nerve transmission and CNS functioning. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) show dramatic changes in infancy, largely as a result of progressive myelination. Because iron is required for normal myelination, pathway transmission in these sensory systems might be affected by(More)
The emergence of sleep states is one of the most significant aspects of development. Descriptions of both neonatal and late fetal behavior and studies on the organization of sleep have shown that fetus and newborns exhibit spontaneously discrete and cyclic patterns of active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS). Human fetuses and neonates sleep most of their(More)
A neuro-fuzzy classifier (NFC) of sleep-wake states and stages has been developed for healthy infants of ages 6 mo and onward. The NFC takes five input patterns previously identified on 20-s epochs from polysomnographic recordings and assigns them to one out of five possible classes: Wakefulness, REM-Sleep, Non-REM Sleep Stage 1, Stage 2, and Stage 3-4. The(More)
An automated system for sleep spindles detection within EEG background activity, combining two different approaches, is presented. The first approach applies detection criteria on the sigma-band filtered EEG signal, including fuzzy thresholds. The second approach mimics an expert's procedure. A sleep spindle detection is validated if both approaches agree.(More)
OBJECTIVE Epidemiological evidence shows an inverse relationship between sleep duration and overweight/obesity risk. However, there are few polysomnographic studies that relate the organization of sleep stages to pediatric overweight (OW). We compared sleep organization in otherwise healthy OW and normal-weight (NW) 10-year-old children. SUBJECTS(More)
AIM The aim of this study was to assess the effects of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy on executive functioning at age 10 years, specifically inhibitory control on the Go/No-Go task. We predicted that children who had IDA in infancy would show poorer inhibitory control. METHOD We assessed cognitive inhibitory control in 132 Chilean children (mean(More)
We present an automated multiple-step tool to identify Rapid Eye Movements (REMs) in the polysomnogram, based on modeling expert criteria. It begins by identifying the polysomnogram segments compatible with REMs presence. On these segments, high-energy REMs are identified. Then, vicinity zones around those REMs are defined, and lesser-energy REMs are sought(More)
The emergence of consolidated nighttime sleep and the formation and maintenance of parent-infant relationships are 2 primary developmental achievements of the infancy period. Despite the development of a transactional model that links parenting behaviors to infant sleep, limited attention has been devoted to examining experimental manipulations of infant(More)
BACKGROUND Reward system and inhibitory control are brain functions that exert an influence on eating behavior regulation. We studied the differences in inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward and loss avoidance between overweight/obese and normal-weight adolescents. METHODS We assessed 51 overweight/obese and 52 normal-weight 15-y-old Chilean(More)