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We present a new methodology to detect and characterize sleep spindles (SSs), based on the nonlinear algorithms, empirical-mode decomposition, and Hilbert-Huang transform, which provide adequate temporal and frequency resolutions in the electroencephalographic analysis. In addition, the application of fuzzy logic allows to emulate expert's procedures.(More)
This work is part of a project to develop an expert system for automated classification of the sleep/waking states in human infants; i.e. active or rapid-eye-movement sleep (REM), quiet or non-REM sleep (NREM), including its four stages, indeterminate sleep (IS) and wakefulness (WA). A model to identify these states, introducing an objective formalisation(More)
THE AIMS OF OUR STUDY WERE 1) to answer the question "Do sleep states exist in normal premature infants;" 2) to analyze the development of sleep cycle and sleep state characteristics in premature and full-term newborns. Polygraph recordings were done on 38 normal, appropriate for gestational age newborns, born at 30 to 41 weeks (w) of gestation. All infants(More)
Iron deficiency anemia has long been thought to have effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Finding direct evidence of this in human infants, however, has been challenging. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) provide a noninvasive means of examining an aspect of the CNS that is rapidly maturing during the age period when iron deficiency is most(More)
Evoked potentials provide noninvasive measures of nerve transmission and CNS functioning. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) show dramatic changes in infancy, largely as a result of progressive myelination. Because iron is required for normal myelination, pathway transmission in these sensory systems might be affected by(More)
A robust, automated pattern recognition system for polysomnography data targeted to the sleep-waking state and stage identification is presented. Five patterns were searched for: slow-delta and theta wave predominance in the background electro-encephalogram (EEG) activity; presence of sleep spindles in the EEG; presence of rapid eye movements in an(More)
The emergence of sleep states is one of the most significant aspects of development. Descriptions of both neonatal and late fetal behavior and studies on the organization of sleep have shown that fetus and newborns exhibit spontaneously discrete and cyclic patterns of active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS). Human fetuses and neonates sleep most of their(More)
A neuro-fuzzy classifier (NFC) of sleep-wake states and stages has been developed for healthy infants of ages 6 mo and onward. The NFC takes five input patterns previously identified on 20-s epochs from polysomnographic recordings and assigns them to one out of five possible classes: Wakefulness, REM-Sleep, Non-REM Sleep Stage 1, Stage 2, and Stage 3-4. The(More)
To investigate the influence of prematurity and postnatal age on the maturation of the autonomic nervous system function, we analysed heart-rate and heart-rate variability in twelve prematurely born infants (< 37 weeks gestational age) reaching the conceptional age of 37-41 weeks. These neonates were compared with sixteen 37-41 week conceptional age(More)