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A survey of copper levels in agricultural soils of central Chile revealed two soil clusters-one with a mean copper level of 162 mg/kg and one with a mean copper level of 751 mg/kg of soil. Samples of soils from both soil clusters were characterized on the basis of physicochemical characteristics, and copper extractability was compared by saturation and(More)
A one-year greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the transfer of copper from contaminated agricultural soils to edible and nonedible structures of lettuce, tomato, and onion plants. Study soils were selected from two basins of central Chile (Santiago and Cachapoal) to represent two similar total soil copper gradients with different pH values. Results(More)
Calsequestrin, a high-capacity, intermediate-affinity, calcium-binding protein present in the lumen of sarcoplasmic reticulum, undergoes extensive calcium-induced conformational changes at neutral pH that cause distinct intrinsic fluorescence changes. The results reported in this work indicate that pH has a marked effect on these calcium-induced intrinsic(More)
Current evidence suggests that extracellular mannose can be transported intracellularly and utilized for glycoprotein synthesis; however, the identity and the functional characteristics of the transporters of mannose are controversial. Although the glucose transporters are capable of transporting mannose, it has been postulated that the entry of mannose in(More)
Ca2+ and Gd3+ stimulated the GTPase activity of chicken brain tubulin 13- and 26-fold, respectively. Mg2+, Tb3+, and Na+ had no effect. This GTPase activity showed a saturation behavior with Ca2+ and Gd3+ with a maximal activity of 0.26 +/- 0.026 and 1.15 +/- 0.78 nmol min-1 per mg of tubulin and semisaturation constants, expressed as the concentration of(More)
The objective of the present study was to assess the predictive capacity of the acute Cu biotic ligand model (BLM) as applied to chronic Cu toxicity to Daphnia magna in freshwaters from Chile and synthetic laboratory-prepared waters. Samples from 20 freshwater bodies were taken, chemically characterized, and used in the acute Cu BLM to predict the 21-d(More)
The objective of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of the biotic ligand model (BLM) for acute copper toxicity to daphnids as applied to a number of freshwaters from Chile and to synthetic laboratory-prepared waters. Thirty-seven freshwater bodies were sampled, chemically characterized, and used to determine the copper concentration associated(More)
The unfolding and dissociation of the tetrameric enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase from pig kidney by guanidine hydrochloride have been investigated at equilibrium by monitoring enzyme activity, ANS binding, intrinsic (tyrosine) protein fluorescence, exposure of thiol groups, fluorescence of extrinsic probes (AEDANS, MIANS), and size-exclusion(More)
Binding of MgATP to the allosteric site of phosphofructokinase-2 promotes a dimer to tetramer conversion. In the presence of Fru-6-P the enzyme remains as a dimer. Limited proteolysis in the presence of MgATP completely protects the enzyme against inactivation and cleavage, while Fru-6-P provides a partial protection. A 28-kDa proteolytic fragment(More)
Bioelution assays are fast, simple alternatives to in vivo testing. In this study, the intra- and inter-laboratory variability in bioaccessibility data generated by bioelution tests were evaluated in synthetic fluids relevant to oral, inhalation, and dermal exposure. Using one defined protocol, five laboratories measured metal release from cobalt oxide,(More)