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Several lines of evidence suggest that norepinephrine (NE) can modulate seizure activity. However, the experimental methods used in the past cannot exclude the possible role of other neurotransmitters coreleased with NE from noradrenergic terminals. We have assessed the seizure susceptibility of genetically engineered mice that lack NE. Seizure(More)
The distribution of cells expressing mRNA encoding a vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR) was examined in Long-Evans male and female rats by in situ hybridization using a [35S]cRNA probe. Specific hybridization to the vasopressin V1aR mRNA was evident in cells of the frontal cortex, piriform cortex, internal granular layer and the medial, dorsal, ventral and(More)
BACKGROUND Prenatal ethanol exposure affects brain dopaminergic neuronal systems, and many of these alterations are permanent. METHODS The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on adult mRNA expression for two key regulatory proteins in the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell groups which(More)
The biosynthesis of norepinephrine occurs through a multi-enzymatic pathway that includes the enzyme dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH). Mice with a homozygous deletion of DBH (Dbh-/-) have a selective and complete absence of norepinephrine. The purpose of this study was to assess the expression of alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta adrenergic receptors (alpha1-AR,(More)
The catecholamines norepinephrine and dopamine are abundant in the CNS, and modulate neuronal excitability via G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. This review covers the history of research concerning the role of catecholamines in modulating seizure susceptibility in animal models of epilepsy. Traditionally, most work on this topic has been anatomical,(More)
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is a significant loss of locus ceruleus (LC) noradrenergic neurons. However, functional and anatomical evidence indicates that the remaining noradrenergic neurons may be compensating for the loss. Because the noradrenergic system plays an important role in learning and memory, it is important to determine whether(More)
We have hypothesized that the midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are a target for insulin action in the central nervous system (CNS). In support of this hypothesis, we have previously demonstrated that direct intracerebroventricular infusion of insulin results in an increase in mRNA levels for the DA reuptake transporter (DAT). In this study, 24- to 36-hour(More)
The ontogeny of vasopressin (VP) gene expression in extrahypothalamic neurons of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial amygdala (MA) was investigated using in situ hybridization. In both the BNST and MA, VP mRNA-positive cell profiles were only detected a few days after birth. In males, VP mRNA-expressing cell profiles appear in the BNST(More)
Serotonin (5-HT7) receptor pre-mRNA is alternatively spliced in rat tissue to produce three isoforms, 5-HT(7a), 5-HT(7b) and 5-HT(7c), which differ in the amino acid sequences of their carboxyl terminal tails. Substantial species differences in structure and expression patterns exist for 5-HT7 isoforms. We have now compared some of the functional(More)
Degeneration of the noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) is a major component of Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but the consequence of noradrenergic neuronal loss has different effects on the surviving neurons in the two disorders. Therefore, understanding the consequence of noradrenergic neuronal loss is important in(More)