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Proteotoxic stress (PS) is generated in cells under a variety of conditions involving accumulation of misfolded proteins. To avoid the toxicity of unmitigated PS, cells activate the heat shock response (HSR). HSR involves upregulation of factors such as ubiquitin and the non-housekeeping chaperone Hsp70 which assist with metabolism of aberrant proteins. The(More)
A common V(D)J recombinase that recognizes a conserved recombination signal sequence (RSS) mediates the assembly of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptor (TCR) genes in B and T cell precursors. The rearrangement of particular Ig and TCR gene segments, however, is tightly regulated with respect to cell lineage and developmental stage. Using an in vitro(More)
Deletion of the TCRbeta transcriptional enhancer (Ebeta) results in nearly complete inhibition of V(D)J recombination at the TCRbeta locus and a block in alpha beta T cell development. This result, along with previous work from many laboratories, has led to the hypothesis that transcriptional enhancers affect V(D)J recombination by regulating the(More)
Binding of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) activates innate immune responses and contributes to development of adaptive immunity. Simultaneous stimulation of different types of PRRs can have synergistic immunostimulatory effects resulting in enhanced production of molecules that mediate innate immunity(More)
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