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Breast epithelial cells differentiate into tubules when cultured in floating three-dimensional (3D) collagen gels, but not when the cells are cultured in the same collagen matrix that is attached to the culture dish. These observations suggest that the biophysical properties of collagenous matrices regulate epithelial differentiation, but the mechanism by(More)
Association of oncogenic ras proteins with cellular membranes appears to be a crucial step in transformation, ras is synthesized as a cytosolic precursor, which is processed to a mature form that localizes to the plasma membrane. This processing involves, in part, a conserved sequence, Cys-Ali-Ali-Xaa (in which Ali is an amino acid with an aliphatic side(More)
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases can be grouped into three structural families, ERK, JNK, and p38, which are thought to carry out unique functions within cells. We demonstrate that ERK, JNK, and p38 are activated by distinct combinations of stimuli in T cells that simulate full or partial activation through the T cell receptor. These kinases are(More)
We demonstrate that Rho, a regulator of cytoskeletal actin, is necessary for Ras transformation. A dominant inhibitory Rho gene (RhoBN19) specifically suppressed Rat1 cell focus formation induced by oncogenic Ras but not by Raf. An activated Rho gene (RhoBV14) lacked focus formation activity but augmented the focus formation activity of both oncogenes.(More)
Although substantial evidence supports a critical role for the activation of Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in oncogenic Ras-mediated transformation, recent evidence suggests that Ras may activate a second signaling pathway which involves the Ras-related proteins Rac1 and RhoA. Consequently, we used three complementary approaches to(More)
Substantial evidence supports a critical role for the activation of the Raf-1/MEK/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in oncogenic Ras-mediated transformation. For example, dominant negative mutants of Raf-1, MEK, and mitogen-activated protein kinase all inhibit Ras transformation. Furthermore, the observation that plasma membrane-localized Raf-1(More)
Phosphoinositide hydrolysis was studied in a washed membrane preparation of 1321N1 astrocytoma cells prelabeled with [3H]inositol. GTP gamma S stimulated the formation of [3H]inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphate ([3H]InsP, [3H]InsP2, and [3H]InsP3) with a half-maximal effect on [3H]InsP formation at 5 microM. Carbachol increased the accumulation of(More)
Overexpression of Neu (ErbB-2/HER2) is found in approximately 20% of breast tumors. Activation of Neu by a point mutation (NeuT) causes constitutive tyrosine kinase activity of this transmembrane receptor and transforming activity in fibroblasts. To identify downstream targets of Neu, we have analyzed the ability of Neu to activate gene expression.(More)
Recent studies showed that specific isoprenoid modification may be critical for RhoB subcellular location and function. Therefore, we determined whether the function of the highly related RhoA protein is also critically dependent on specific isoprenoid modification: (a) in contrast to observations with RhoB or Ras proteins, where farnesylated and(More)
Covalent attachment of myristic acid (C14:0) to the NH2-terminal glycine residue of a number of cellular, viral, and oncogene-encoded proteins is essential for full expression of their biological function. Substitution of oxygen for methylene groups in this fatty acid does not produce a significant change in chain length or stereochemistry but does result(More)