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Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases can be grouped into three structural families, ERK, JNK, and p38, which are thought to carry out unique functions within cells. We demonstrate that ERK, JNK, and p38 are activated by distinct combinations of stimuli in T cells that simulate full or partial activation through the T cell receptor. These kinases are(More)
Breast epithelial cells differentiate into tubules when cultured in floating three-dimensional (3D) collagen gels, but not when the cells are cultured in the same collagen matrix that is attached to the culture dish. These observations suggest that the biophysical properties of collagenous matrices regulate epithelial differentiation, but the mechanism by(More)
Association of oncogenic ras proteins with cellular membranes appears to be a crucial step in transformation, ras is synthesized as a cytosolic precursor, which is processed to a mature form that localizes to the plasma membrane. This processing involves, in part, a conserved sequence, Cys-Ali-Ali-Xaa (in which Ali is an amino acid with an aliphatic side(More)
We demonstrate that Rho, a regulator of cytoskeletal actin, is necessary for Ras transformation. A dominant inhibitory Rho gene (RhoBN19) specifically suppressed Rat1 cell focus formation induced by oncogenic Ras but not by Raf. An activated Rho gene (RhoBV14) lacked focus formation activity but augmented the focus formation activity of both oncogenes.(More)
Phosphoinositide hydrolysis was studied in a washed membrane preparation of 1321N1 astrocytoma cells prelabeled with [3H]inositol. GTP gamma S stimulated the formation of [3H]inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphate ([3H]InsP, [3H]InsP2, and [3H]InsP3) with a half-maximal effect on [3H]InsP formation at 5 microM. Carbachol increased the accumulation of(More)
Although substantial evidence supports a critical role for the activation of Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in oncogenic Ras-mediated transformation, recent evidence suggests that Ras may activate a second signaling pathway which involves the Ras-related proteins Rac1 and RhoA. Consequently, we used three complementary approaches to(More)
Substantial evidence supports a critical role for the activation of the Raf-1/MEK/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in oncogenic Ras-mediated transformation. For example, dominant negative mutants of Raf-1, MEK, and mitogen-activated protein kinase all inhibit Ras transformation. Furthermore, the observation that plasma membrane-localized Raf-1(More)
Recent studies showed that specific isoprenoid modification may be critical for RhoB subcellular location and function. Therefore, we determined whether the function of the highly related RhoA protein is also critically dependent on specific isoprenoid modification: (a) in contrast to observations with RhoB or Ras proteins, where farnesylated and(More)
RhoGTPases play important roles in the regulation of protein transport and membrane recycling. Little is known, however, about how RhoGTPases affect HIV-1 virion production, which is dependent on the endosomal sorting pathway. We report that ectopic expression of citron kinase (citron-K), a RhoA effector, preferentially enhances HIV-1 virion production.(More)
In cultured human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, muscarinic receptor stimulation leads to phosphoinositide hydrolysis, formation of inositol phosphates, and mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. Treatment of these cells with 1 microM 4 beta-phorbol 12 beta-myristate 13 alpha-acetate (PMA) completely blocks the carbachol-stimulated formation of [3H]inositol mono-,(More)