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Breast epithelial cells differentiate into tubules when cultured in floating three-dimensional (3D) collagen gels, but not when the cells are cultured in the same collagen matrix that is attached to the culture dish. These observations suggest that the biophysical properties of collagenous matrices regulate epithelial differentiation, but the mechanism by(More)
Substantial evidence supports a critical role for the activation of the Raf-1/MEK/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in oncogenic Ras-mediated transformation. For example, dominant negative mutants of Raf-1, MEK, and mitogen-activated protein kinase all inhibit Ras transformation. Furthermore, the observation that plasma membrane-localized Raf-1(More)
Recent studies showed that specific isoprenoid modification may be critical for RhoB subcellular location and function. Therefore, we determined whether the function of the highly related RhoA protein is also critically dependent on specific isoprenoid modification: (a) in contrast to observations with RhoB or Ras proteins, where farnesylated and(More)
Although substantial evidence supports a critical role for the activation of Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in oncogenic Ras-mediated transformation, recent evidence suggests that Ras may activate a second signaling pathway which involves the Ras-related proteins Rac1 and RhoA. Consequently, we used three complementary approaches to(More)
Finding the outline of an object in an image is a fundamental step in many vision-based applications. It is important to demonstrate that the segmentation found accurately represents the contour of the object in the image. The discrepancy measure model for segmentation analysis focuses on selecting an appropriate discrepancy measure to compute a score that(More)
Analyses of biomedical images often rely on demarcating the boundaries of biological structures (segmentation). While numerous approaches are adopted to address the segmentation problem including collecting annotations from domain-experts and automated algorithms, the lack of comparative benchmarking makes it challenging to determine the current(More)
The 21-kD proteins encoded by ras oncogenes (p21Ras) are modified covalently by a palmitate attached to a cysteine residue near the carboxyl terminus. Changing cysteine at position 186 to serine in oncogenic forms produces a nonpalmitylated protein that fails to associate with membranes and does not transform NIH 3T3 cells. Nonpalmitylated p21Ras(More)
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