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In this study a computer aided navigation technique for accurate positioning of oral implants was assessed. An optical tracking system with specially designed tools for monitoring the position of surgical instruments relative to the patient was used to register 5 partially or completely edentulous jaw models. Besides the accuracy of the tracking system, the(More)
Experiment 1 established the effectiveness of an appetitive conditioning of odours procedure with snails (Helix aspersa) that was subsequently used for the study of blocking. In this important phenomenon, the conditioning of a CS1 (where CS is the conditioned stimulus) prior to conditioning of a compound, CS1CS2, blocked the conditioning to the CS2.(More)
In 43 edentulous, lower jaw halves, sections were carried out in the area between the mental foramen and the third molar. The relative changes in the location and course of the mandibular canal which are caused by atrophy were analysed. For this purpose, the mandibles were classified according to so-called residual ridge orders which describe the different(More)
43 atrophic left hemimandibles were divided by 6 saw cuts made between the mental foramen and the third molar to analyze the location of the mandibular canal. Mandibles were classified by the severity of alveolar absorption using Atwood's classification and changes in the distances of the mandibular canal from the superior and inferior borders of the(More)
Two experiments using garden snails (Helix aspersa) showed conditioned inhibition using both retardation and summation tests. Conditioned inhibition is a procedure by which a stimulus becomes a predictor of the absence of a relevant event--the unconditioned stimulus (US). Typically, conditioned inhibition consists of pairings between an initially neutral(More)
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