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Inexpensive, rapid, and reliable methods of detecting infection by and drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are crucial to the control of tuberculosis. The novel microscopic observation broth-drug susceptibility assay (MODS) detects early growth of MTB in liquid medium, allowing more timely diagnosis and drug susceptibility testing.(More)
We compared the peptidase activities of the excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens of oncospheres of Taenia solium and related, but nonpathogenic, Taenia saginata. Taenia solium and T. saginata oncospheres were cultured, and the spent media of 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-hr fractions were analyzed. Activities for serine peptidases (chymotrypsin-, trypsin-, and(More)
Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of pediatric diarrhea in developing countries-free-ranging chickens are presumed to be a common source. Campylobacter strains from monthly surveillance and diarrhea cases were compared by means of restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), rapid amplified polymorphic DNA, and Lior serotyping. RFLP analysis of 156(More)
OBJECTIVE Lactobacillus GG (L-GG), an acid- and bile-resistant strain that colonizes the intestinal mucosa, has been used to manage diarrhea in children. Our objective was to evaluate the prophylactic use of L-GG to prevent diarrhea in children at high risk from a developing country in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. STUDY DESIGN Two hundred four(More)
BACKGROUND Institutional tuberculosis (TB) transmission is an important public health problem highlighted by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant TB. Effective TB infection control measures are urgently needed. We evaluated the efficacy of upper-room ultraviolet (UV) lights and negative air ionization for(More)
BACKGROUND The current understanding of airborne tuberculosis (TB) transmission is based on classic 1950s studies in which guinea pigs were exposed to air from a tuberculosis ward. Recently we recreated this model in Lima, Perú, and in this paper we report the use of molecular fingerprinting to investigate patient infectiousness in the current era of HIV(More)
A novel heminested IS6110 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was evaluated as a tool for diagnosing tuberculosis in 222 children. In an analysis of 392 specimens (gastric aspirates, nasopharyngeal aspirates, and sputum samples), results of PCR were compared with those of 3 culture methods, acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining, and clinical assessment by the(More)
Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide is associated with mutations in the pncA gene, which codes for pyrazinamidase. The association between the enzymatic activity of mutated pyrazinamidases and the level of pyrazinamide resistance remains poorly understood. Twelve M. tuberculosis clinical isolates resistant to pyrazinamide were selected(More)
Pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis is difficult when patients cannot produce sputum. Most sputum is swallowed, and tuberculosis DNA can survive intestinal transit. We therefore evaluated molecular testing of stool specimens for detecting tuberculosis originating from the lungs. Paired stool and sputum samples (n=159) were collected from 89 patients with(More)