Patricia S. P. Thong

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BACKGROUND Fragmentation of genomic DNA in apoptosis/programmed cell death (PCD) is a characteristic hallmark in which both 2N and 4N DNA from G1, S, and G2/M cell cycle phases were seen degraded to the sub-2N Ao level in PCD such as from serum deprivation, glucocorticoid treatment, and gamma-radiation. However M-phase (mitotic) cells are said to perish(More)
The theory that iron may play a significant role in atherogenesis by promoting the formation of free radicals is controversial. Previous results using the new technique of nuclear microscopy showed a seven-fold increase in iron concentrations within newly formed atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits compared to healthy artery tissue. In a(More)
Malignancies of the oral cavity are conventionally diagnosed by white light endoscopy, biopsy, and histopathology. However, it is often difficult to distinguish between benign and premalignant or early lesions. A laser confocal endomicroscope (LCE) offers noninvasive, in vivo surface and subsurface fluorescence imaging of tissue. We investigate the use of(More)
Very little is known about the modulation of vanadium accumulation in cells, although this ultratrace element has long been seen as an essential nutrient in lower life forms, but not necessarily in humans where factors modulating cellular uptake of vanadium seem unclear. Using nuclear microscopy, which is capable of the direct evaluation of free and bound(More)
The nuclear microscope is now gaining popularity in the field of life sciences. In particular, the combination of proton-induced X-ray emission to measure the elemental concentrations of inorganic elements, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry to characterize the organic matrix, and scanning transmission ion microscopy to provide information on the(More)
Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is an emerging noninvasive technique that probes the deep tissue blood flow, by using the time-averaged intensity autocorrelation function of the fluctuating diffuse reflectance signal. We present a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based software autocorrelator that utilizes the graphical programming language LabVIEW(More)
BACKGROUND Photosensitizer based fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy is fast becoming a promising approach for cancer detection. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) formulated in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a potential exogenous fluorophore for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopic detection of human(More)
The trace elemental concentrations, including iron, in the substantia nigra (SN) of a 6-OHDA induced rat model of Parkinson's disease were measured using nuclear microscopy. Only rats that exhibited amphetamine induced rotation of more than 7 turns/min were used. The results showed that the iron levels were significantly increased in the 6-OHDA lesioned SN,(More)
Though increasing lines of evidence suggest that iron accumulation and iron-induced oxidative stress might be important pathological factors responsible for substantia nigra (SN) cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD), it is still unknown whether iron accumulation is a primary cause or consequence of nigral cell death. Using nuclear microscopy, iron(More)