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BACKGROUND Fragmentation of genomic DNA in apoptosis/programmed cell death (PCD) is a characteristic hallmark in which both 2N and 4N DNA from G1, S, and G2/M cell cycle phases were seen degraded to the sub-2N Ao level in PCD such as from serum deprivation, glucocorticoid treatment, and gamma-radiation. However M-phase (mitotic) cells are said to perish(More)
Malignancies of the oral cavity are conventionally diagnosed by white light endoscopy, biopsy, and histopathology. However, it is often difficult to distinguish between benign and premalignant or early lesions. A laser confocal endomicroscope (LCE) offers noninvasive, in vivo surface and subsurface fluorescence imaging of tissue. We investigate the use of(More)
The nuclear microscope is now gaining popularity in the field of life sciences. In particular, the combination of proton-induced X-ray emission to measure the elemental concentrations of inorganic elements, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry to characterize the organic matrix, and scanning transmission ion microscopy to provide information on the(More)
The theory that iron may play a significant role in atherogenesis by promoting the formation of free radicals is controversial. Previous results using the new technique of nuclear microscopy showed a seven-fold increase in iron concentrations within newly formed atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits compared to healthy artery tissue. In a(More)
The trace elemental concentrations, including iron, in the substantia nigra (SN) of a 6-OHDA induced rat model of Parkinson's disease were measured using nuclear microscopy. Only rats that exhibited amphetamine induced rotation of more than 7 turns/min were used. The results showed that the iron levels were significantly increased in the 6-OHDA lesioned SN,(More)
Very little is known about the modulation of vanadium accumulation in cells, although this ultratrace element has long been seen as an essential nutrient in lower life forms, but not necessarily in humans where factors modulating cellular uptake of vanadium seem unclear. Using nuclear microscopy, which is capable of the direct evaluation of free and bound(More)
Though increasing lines of evidence suggest that iron accumulation and iron-induced oxidative stress might be important pathological factors responsible for substantia nigra (SN) cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD), it is still unknown whether iron accumulation is a primary cause or consequence of nigral cell death. Using nuclear microscopy, iron(More)
Confocal endomicroscopy is a novel and non-invasive microscopic technique that enables surface and subsurface imaging of living tissues or cells in vivo. The purpose of this study was to assess the possibility of utilizing a rigid confocal endomicroscope (RCE) system developed for detecting morphological changes in living normal and neoplastic human tongue(More)
Tumor response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) is dependent on treatment parameters used. In particular, the light fluence rate may be an important determinant of the treatment outcome. In this clinical case report, we describe the response of angiosarcoma to PDT carried out using different fluence rates and drug and light doses. A patient with recurrent(More)