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The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a protein tyrosine kinase expressed on many types of tumor cells, including breast, ovarian, bladder, head and neck, and prostatic carcinoma. There seems to be an association between up-regulation of the EGFR and poor clinical prognosis for a number of human cancers. The 225 antibody is a highly specific murine(More)
We reported previously that cadmium, an oxidative stressor, induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) upregulation in mouse neuronal cells that culminated in cell death. Herein, we show that cadmium induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and their substrates, activating(More)
VEGF121 and VEGF165 are vascular endothelial growth factor splice variants that promote the proliferation of endothelial cells and angiogenesis. VEGF165 contains the 44 additional amino acids encoded by exon 7 of the VEGF gene. These amino acids confer upon VEGF165 a heparin binding capability which VEGF121 lacks. 125I-VEGF165 bound to three vascular(More)
While increasing evidence shows that proteasome inhibition triggers oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and death in neuronal cells, the regulatory relationship among these events is unclear. Using mouse neuronal cells we show that the cytotoxicity induced by mild (0.25 microM) and potent (5.0 microM) doses of the proteasome inhibitor,(More)
In many neurodegenerative disorders, aggregates of ubiquitinated proteins are detected in neuronal inclusions, but their role in neurodegeneration remains to be defined. To identify intracellular mechanisms associated with the appearance of ubiquitin-protein aggregates, mouse neuronal HT4 cells were treated with cadmium. This heavy metal is a potent cell(More)
The overexpression in tumor cells of (proto)-oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or ErbB2/neu (also known as HER-2) is generally thought to contribute to the development of solid tumors primarily through their effects on promoting uncontrolled cell proliferation. However, agents that antagonize the function of(More)
The importance of angiogenesis in malignant tumor growth has been interpreted mainly in terms of oxygen and nutrient supply. Here we demonstrate its fundamental role for tumor invasion of malignant human keratinocytes in surface transplants on nude mice. Distinct patterns of angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) expression(More)
Biological evidence suggests that interference with the function of the angiogenic growth factor receptor VEGFR2 (flk1/KDR) is a particularly promising strategy to inhibit tumor-induced angiogenesis. Proof of concept was established by developing a monoclonal rat anti-mouse VEGFR2 antibody (DC101) and showing that it potently blocked the binding of VEGF to(More)
We cloned the cDNA for stem cell tyrosine kinase 1 (STK-1), the human homolog of murine Flk-2/Flt-3, from a CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell-enriched library and investigated its expression in subsets of normal human bone marrow. The cDNA encodes a protein of 993 aa with 85% identity and 92% similarity to Flk-2/Flt-3. STK-1 is a member of the type III receptor(More)
The 121-amino acid form of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF121) and the 165-amino acid form (VEGF165) are mitogenic for vascular endothelial cells and induce angiogenesis in vivo. VEGF165 possesses a heparin binding ability and in the absence of heparin-like molecules does not bind efficiently to the VEGF receptors of vascular endothelial cells. The(More)