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Sickness behaviour represents the expression of the adaptive reorganization of the priorities of the host during an infectious episode. This process is triggered by pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by peripheral phagocytic cells in contact with invading micro-organisms. The peripheral immune message is relayed to the brain via a fast neural pathway and a(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) mediates symptoms of sickness during the host response to infection. IL-1 exerts its effects via several subtypes of receptors. To assess the role of IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) in the sickness-inducing effects of IL-1, IL-1beta and the cytokine inducer lipopolysaccharide were administered to IL-1RI-deficient mice (IL-1RI-/-).(More)
The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to assess the induction of mRNA of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF alpha in the spleen, pituitary, hypothalamus and hippocampus of mice after an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 micrograms/mouse). The kinetics of cytokine gene expression(More)
Nutritional programming, taking place in utero or early after birth, is closely linked with metabolic and appetite disorders in adulthood. Following the hypothesis that nutritional programming impacts hypothalamic neuronal organization, we report on discrepancies of multiple molecular and cellular early events that take place in the hypothalamus of rats(More)
To assess the possible influence of endogenous glucocorticoids on cytokine expression in the brain, adrenalectomized mice and sham operated mice were injected with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 micrograms/mouse, subcutaneously) and the levels of transcripts for IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-1ra, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) were(More)
Like interleukin-1, recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) has been found to decrease social exploration and induce weight loss in mice in a dose and time-dependent manner. The present study was carried out to study the interaction between these two cytokines. Mice were injected IP with subthreshold doses of TNF alpha (2.5(More)
Methionine, folic acid, betaine and choline interact in the one-carbon metabolism which provides methyl groups for methylation reactions. An optimal intake of these nutrients during pregnancy is required for successful completion of fetal development and evidence is growing that they could be involved in metabolic long-term programming. However, the(More)
Mice injected with LPS (10 mu g/mouse, sc) or saline were submitted to a 15-min restraint stress and sacrificed 1 or 2 h later to assess the effect of stress on the induction of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and other proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1alpha, IL-1ra, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in the spleen, pituitary, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and(More)
When activated by its ligand, the interleukin receptor type I (IL-1RI) transduces signals in cooperation with the IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RacP). In contrast, IL-1RII functions as a decoy receptor without participating in IL-1 signalling. Brain astrocytes are cellular targets of IL-1 and play a pivotal role in brain responses to inflammation.(More)
Although binding sites for IL-1 have been identified in the mouse brain, it is still unknown whether these binding sites correspond to the type I or type II IL-1 receptor. Quantitative autoradiography was used to confirm the presence of specific binding sites for radiolabelled recombinant human IL-1 alpha (125I-HuIL-1 alpha) in the brain of DBA/2 mice. IL-1(More)