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Sickness behaviour represents the expression of the adaptive reorganization of the priorities of the host during an infectious episode. This process is triggered by pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by peripheral phagocytic cells in contact with invading micro-organisms. The peripheral immune message is relayed to the brain via a fast neural pathway and a(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) mediates symptoms of sickness during the host response to infection. IL-1 exerts its effects via several subtypes of receptors. To assess the role of IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) in the sickness-inducing effects of IL-1, IL-1beta and the cytokine inducer lipopolysaccharide were administered to IL-1RI-deficient mice (IL-1RI-/-).(More)
The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to assess the induction of mRNA of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF alpha in the spleen, pituitary, hypothalamus and hippocampus of mice after an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 micrograms/mouse). The kinetics of cytokine gene expression(More)
Nutritional programming, taking place in utero or early after birth, is closely linked with metabolic and appetite disorders in adulthood. Following the hypothesis that nutritional programming impacts hypothalamic neuronal organization, we report on discrepancies of multiple molecular and cellular early events that take place in the hypothalamus of rats(More)
To assess the possible influence of endogenous glucocorticoids on cytokine expression in the brain, adrenalectomized mice and sham operated mice were injected with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 micrograms/mouse, subcutaneously) and the levels of transcripts for IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-1ra, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) were(More)
Like interleukin-1, recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) has been found to decrease social exploration and induce weight loss in mice in a dose and time-dependent manner. The present study was carried out to study the interaction between these two cytokines. Mice were injected IP with subthreshold doses of TNF alpha (2.5(More)
Peripheral and central injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a cytokine inducer, and recombinant proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) induce sickness behavior in the form of reduced food intake and decreased social activities. Mechanisms of the behavioral effects of cytokines have been the subject of much investigation during(More)
Epidemiological studies demonstrated a relationship between low birth weight mainly caused by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and adult metabolic disorders. The concept of metabolic programming centers on the idea that nutritional and hormonal status during the key period of development determines the long-term control of energy balance by(More)
Interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and IL-1 beta bind to either the p80 type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI) or the p68 type II IL-1R (IL-1RII) on both T and B lymphocytes. We and others have previously shown that the anterior pituitary gland also has specific high affinity binding sites for IL-1 alpha (Kd = approximately 1 nM) and expresses transcripts for both(More)
Methionine, folic acid, betaine and choline interact in the one-carbon metabolism which provides methyl groups for methylation reactions. An optimal intake of these nutrients during pregnancy is required for successful completion of fetal development and evidence is growing that they could be involved in metabolic long-term programming. However, the(More)