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ClpP and ClpC are subunits of the Clp ATP-dependent protease, which is ubiquitous among prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The role of these proteins in stress tolerance, stationary-phase adaptive responses, and virulence in many bacterial species has been demonstrated. Based on the amino acid sequences of the Bacillus subtilis clpC and clpP genes, we(More)
The Eumetabola (Endopterygota (also known as Holometabola) plus Paraneoptera) have the highest number of species of any clade, and greatly contribute to animal species biodiversity. The palaeoecological circumstances that favoured their emergence and success remain an intriguing question. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have suggested a wide range of(More)
Conservationists often advocate for landscape approaches to wildlife management while others argue for physical separation between protected species and human communities, but direct empirical comparisons of these alternatives are scarce. We relate African lion population densities and population trends to contrasting management practices across 42 sites in(More)
Two different patterns of wing venation are currently supposed to be present in each of the three orders of Paraneoptera. This is unlikely compared with the situation in other insects where only one pattern exists per order. We propose for all Paraneoptera a new and unique interpretation of wing venation pattern, assuming that the convex cubitus anterior(More)
Previous studies have shown that ciliogenesis in the epithelial cells of various species exhibits similarities as well as differences. In an attempt to establish whether this process is identical in epithelial cells of a single species, early stages of centriole formation not previously described were encountered. Ciliogenesis was investigated in the(More)
We previously reported that Bacillus thuringiensis strain 407 Cry 32(-) secretes a zinc-requiring metalloprotease, InhA2, that is essential for virulence in orally infected insects. Analysis of the inhA2-lacZ transcriptional fusion showed that inhA2 expression is repressed in a PlcR(-) background. Using DNase I footprinting experiments, we demonstrated that(More)
The entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis is known to secrete a zinc metalloprotease (InhA) that specifically cleaves antibacterial peptides produced by insect hosts. We identified a second copy of the inhA gene, named inhA2, in B. thuringiensis strain 407 Cry(-). The inhA2 gene encodes a putative polypeptide showing 66.2% overall identity with(More)
Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative cells are known to be highly pathogenic when injected into the hemocoel of susceptible insect larvae. This pathogenicity is due to the capacity of B. thuringiensis to cause septicemia in the host. We screened a B. thuringiensis mini-Tn10 insertion library for loss of virulence against Bombyx mori larvae on injection into(More)
Within modern gymnosperms, conifers and Ginkgo are exclusively wind pollinated whereas many gnetaleans and cycads are insect pollinated. For cycads, thrips are specialized pollinators. We report such a specialized pollination mode from Early Cretaceous amber of Spain, wherein four female thrips representing a genus and two species in the family(More)
After terrestrialization, the diversification of arthropods and vertebrates is thought to have occurred in two distinct phases, the first between the Silurian and the Frasnian stages (Late Devonian period) (425-385 million years (Myr) ago), and the second characterized by the emergence of numerous new major taxa, during the Late Carboniferous period (after(More)