Patricia N. Lee

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The conserved family of Wnt signaling molecules mediates various developmental processes including governing cell fate, proliferation, and polarity. The diverse developmental functions of the Wnt genes in bilaterians have obscured the evolutionary origin of this important signaling pathway. Recent work in the Cnidaria has shown the diversity of Wnt genes,(More)
Cephalopods are a diverse group of highly derived molluscs, including nautiluses, squids, octopuses and cuttlefish. Evolution of the cephalopod body plan from a monoplacophoran-like ancestor entailed the origin of several key morphological innovations contributing to their impressive evolutionary success. Recruitment of regulatory genes, or even(More)
The human oncogene beta-catenin is a bifunctional protein with critical roles in both cell adhesion and transcriptional regulation in the Wnt pathway. Wnt/beta-catenin signalling has been implicated in developmental processes as diverse as elaboration of embryonic polarity, formation of germ layers, neural patterning, spindle orientation and gap junction(More)
Molluscs display a rich diversity of body plans ranging from the wormlike appearance of aplacophorans to the complex body plan of the cephalopods with highly developed sensory organs, a complex central nervous system, and cognitive abilities unrivaled among the invertebrates. The aim of the current study is to define molecular parameters relevant to the(More)
The relationship between egg polarity and the adult body plan is well understood in many bilaterians. However, the evolutionary origins of embryonic polarity are not known. Insight into the evolution of polarity will come from understanding the ontogeny of polarity in non-bilaterian forms, such as cnidarians. We examined how the axial properties of the(More)
Improved understanding of how the human brain is "wired" on a macroscale may now be possible due to the emerging field of MRI connectomics. However, mapping the rapidly developing infant brain networks poses challenges. In this study, we applied an automated template-free "baby connectome" framework using diffusion MRI to non-invasively map the structural(More)
The cloning of a Pax6 orthologue from the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes and its developmental expression pattern are described. The data are consistent with the presence of a single gene encoding a protein with highly conserved DNA-binding paired and homeodomains. A detailed expression analysis by in situ hybridization and immunodetection revealed Pax6(More)
The Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, is a cephalopod whose small size, short lifespan, rapid growth, and year-round availability make it suitable as a model organism. E. scolopes is studied in three principal contexts: (1) as a model of cephalopod development; (2) as a model of animal-bacterial symbioses; and (3) as a system for studying(More)
Whole-mount in situ hybridization is a technique used to localize and visualize specific gene transcripts in whole embryos by hybridizing labeled RNA probes complementary to the sequence of interest. A digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled riboprobe synthesized during in vitro transcription through the incorporation of DIG-labeled UTP is hybridized to the target(More)
A staging series based on easily distinguishable morphological features is a basic and necessary tool for developmental studies. It provides a consistent reference for comparisons between independent studies, negates the need to know when fertilization occurred, allows correlation of the phase of development with the time of development (to facilitate(More)