Patricia M. Spittal

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BACKGROUND In several European countries safer injecting rooms have reduced the public disorder and health-related problems of injection drug use. We explored factors associated with needle-sharing practices that could potentially be alleviated by the availability of safer injecting rooms in Canada. METHODS The Vancouver Injection Drug User Study is a(More)
We sought to examine the relationship between housing status and risk of HIV-infection among injection drug users in Vancouver, Canada. Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, we found an elevated HIV incidence rate among those who reported residing in unstable housing (log-rank p=0.006). In Cox's regression survival analysis, unstable housing remained(More)
INTRODUCTION During the past decade, the number of Aboriginal people diagnosed with HIV in Canada has grown more than any other ethnicity. Whereas the majority of infections are related to injection drug use, factors that explain elevated risk and transmission of HIV among Aboriginal young people who use illicit drugs are not well understood. STUDY DESIGN(More)
OBJECTIVES The explosive and ongoing injecting drug use-related HIV-1 epidemic in Vancouver continues to receive international attention. This study was conducted to determine how patterns of cocaine use influence the risk of HIV infection. METHODS The Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study is an open prospective cohort of injecting drug users that began in(More)
BACKGROUND In 1997, we found a higher prevalence of HIV among female than among male injection drug users in Vancouver. Factors associated with HIV incidence among women in this setting were unknown. In the present study, we sought to compare HIV incidence rates among male and female injection drug users in Vancouver and to compare factors associated with(More)
Vancouver has experienced an explosive HIV epidemic despite the presence of a needle exchange programme (NEP). We sought possible explanations for high-risk syringe sharing among Vancouver injection drug users over the period January 1999 to October 2000. Overall, 14% of participants reported high-risk sharing. Although acquiring needles exclusively from(More)
In Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, difficulty accessing syringes at night has been shown to be strongly associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behavior among the city’s injection drug users (IDUs). On September 1, 2001, the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users (VANDU) initiated an unsanctioned all-night needle-exchange program on a(More)
Within Canadian prisons HIV/AIDS is becoming more common among inmates. While injection drug use in correctional facilities is documented to be a problem, qualitative research into the HIV risks faced by inmates is lacking. The goal of this research was to qualitatively examine HIV risk associated with injecting inside British Columbia prisons. A sample of(More)
BACKGROUND Factors associated with HCV incidence among young Aboriginal people in Canada are still not well understood. We sought to estimate time to HCV infection and the relative hazard of risk factors associated HCV infection among young Aboriginal people who use injection drugs in two Canadian cities. METHODS The Cedar Project is a prospective cohort(More)
In Canada, very little is known about the factors and processes that cause drug-related harm among female intravenous drug users (IDUs). Women who inject drugs and participate in the survival sex trade are considered to be at increased risk for sexual and drug-related harms, including HIV infection. Between September 1999 and September 2000, women(More)