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The underlying brain injury that leads to autism has been difficult to identify. The diagnostic criteria of the disease are not readily associated with any brain region or system, nor are they mimicked by vascular accidents, tumors, or degenerative neurological diseases occurring in adults. Fortuitously, a recent report of autism induced by thalidomide(More)
A qualitative and quantitative comparison of the neuropathological and neurobehavioral effects of early methylmercury (MeHg) exposure is presented. The focus of the qualitative comparison is the examination of how specific end-points (and categories of behavioral functions) compare across species. The focus of the quantitative comparison is the(More)
Abnormalities in anatomy and function of the cranial nerve motor nuclei have been demonstrated in some people with autism and can be modeled in rats by exposure to valproic acid during neural tube closure. Reductions in Purkinje cell number and cerebellar volume, particularly of the posterior lobe, have also been reported in people with autism. Thus, a(More)
OBJECTIVE To replicate the factor structure and predictive validity of revised Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule algorithms in an independent dataset (N = 1,282). METHOD Algorithm revisions were replicated using data from children ages 18 months to 16 years collected at 11 North American sites participating in the Collaborative Programs for(More)
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are common, heritable neurodevelopmental conditions. The genetic architecture of ASDs is complex, requiring large samples to overcome heterogeneity. Here we broaden coverage and sample size relative to other studies of ASDs by using Affymetrix 10K SNP arrays and 1,181 [corrected] families with at least two affected(More)
Data from 10 sites of the NICHD/NIDCD Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism were combined to study the distribution of head circumference and relationship to demographic and clinical variables. Three hundred thirty-eight probands with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) including 208 probands with autism were studied along with 147 parents, 149(More)
BACKGROUND Family studies have demonstrated that the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a major genetic etiologic component, but expression and penetrance of the phenotype are variable. Mice with null mutations of Hoxa1 or Hoxb1, two genes critical to hindbrain development, have phenotypic features frequently observed in autism, but no naturally(More)
  • P M Rodier
  • 1980
Because different parts of the central nervous system form at different stages of development, there is not one critical period but many critical periods. Some neurons are formed around the time of closure of the neural tube: these include the motor horn cells of the spinal cord and some motor nuclei of the brain stem. Other neurons, most notably the(More)
In the context of an epidemiological study of autism in Nova Scotia, subjects were evaluated for minor physical anomalies and physical measurements. Normal control children, children with autism and their siblings, and children with developmental disabilities and their siblings were compared. Posterior rotation of the external ears was found to be a(More)