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Disease-resistant livestock could provide a potentially sustainable and environmentally sound method of controlling tick and tick-borne diseases of livestock in the developing world. Advances in the knowledge and science of genomics open up opportunities to identify selectable genes controlling disease resistance but first, breeds and individuals with(More)
For many years it was assumed that Theileria annulata resembled T. parva, parasitizing lymphocytes and causing lymphoproliferative disease, with the two species being controlled by similar protective immune responses. Patricia Preston et al. here review the evidence that has led to a different view of T. annulata. It is now thought that the schizonts of T.(More)
This study shows how infection of CBA mice with L. tropica can be manipulated so as to mimic the principal features of both subclinical and self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis in man. CBA mice were infected with graded inocula of L. tropica promastigotes. The pattern of primary infection was found to be dependent on dose of infecting organisms: mice given(More)
Acute phase proteins (APP) are synthesised in the liver in response to the systemic presence of high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Bacteria are considered to be strong inducers of APP whereas viruses are weak or non-inducers of APP. Very few reports have been published on APP induction by parasites. Here, we report that the tick-borne protozoan(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) was produced when bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or purified, adherent PBMC (macrophages) were incubated in vitro with bovine recombinant interferon gamma (Bo rIFN-gamma). NO was produced by cells from naive, uninfected calves as well as by cells from cattle either infected with or recovered from infection with Theileria(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a labile inorganic free radical produced by NO synthase from the substrate L-arginine in various cells and tissues including endothelial cells. A substantial elevation of nitrite levels indicative of NO production occurred in cultures of Cowdria ruminantium-infected bovine pulmonary endothelial cells (BPEC) incubated in medium alone.(More)
Recovery of calves from tropical theileriosis was accompanied by the disappearance of macroschizonts from lymph nodes and the appearance of cytotoxic cells in the blood and lymph nodes. Acute, fatal disease was associated with incremental parasitosis and parasitaemia and, in general, an absence of detectable cytotoxic cells in the blood or lymph nodes.(More)
Attenuated vaccines are an important means of controlling Theileria annulata infection of cattle. Production is by prolonged cultivation of macroschizont-infected cells. The mechanism of attenuation remains unclear. There are three general nonmutually exclusive possibilities: Selection of avirulent subpopulations, genome rearrangements and alterations in(More)
The distribution of schizont-infected cells in six calves undergoing acute, lethal sporozoite-induced infections with Theileria annulata was examined, the calves being killed in the early, middle or late stages of disease. A combination of histological and immunocytochemical techniques showed that schizont-infected cells became disseminated rapidly through(More)