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Recent epidemiological studies have established an association between the common consumption of coffee or other caffeinated beverages and a reduced risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). To explore the possibility that caffeine helps prevent the dopaminergic deficits characteristic of PD, we investigated the effects of caffeine and the adenosine(More)
Neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine (METH) can cause hyperthermia in experimental animals. Damage sustained to dopaminergic nerve terminals by this stimulant can be reduced by environmental cooling or by pharmacological manipulation which attenuates the hyperthermia. Many pharmacological agents with very diverse actions protect against METH-induced(More)
The systemic administration of either methamphetamine or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to experimental animals produces degenerative changes in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons or their axon terminals. This study was conducted to determine if excitatory amino acids, which appear to be involved in various neurodegenerative disorders,(More)
Computer imaging and immunohistochemical staining techniques were used to determine which midbrain dopaminergic (DA) cells are spared in Parkinson's disease (PD), and in animals treated with the DA neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and whether the spared cells contain the calcium-binding protein, calbindin-D28k (CaBP). The PD(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder whose etiology is not understood. This disease occurs both sporadically and through inheritance of single genes, although the familial types are rare. Over the past decade or so, experimental and clinical data suggest that PD could be a multifactorial, neurodegenerative disease that(More)
The mechanisms involved in methamphetamine (METH)-induced damage to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in experimental animals are unknown. We have examined the possibility that perturbations in energy metabolism contribute to METH-induced toxicity by investigating the effects of systemic METH treatment in mice which received a unilateral intrastriatal(More)
This review summarizes recent developments that have contributed to understand how adenosine receptors, particularly A2A receptors, modulate brain injury in various animal models of neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD), stroke, Huntington's disease (HD), multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and HIV-associated dementia. It is(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with loss of total glutathione (GSH) which may contribute to progressive cell death. Peripheral GSH administration has been used clinically with reported benefits. Despite this, there is little specific information to characterize its cellular uptake or clearance, brain elevation with peripheral delivery or(More)
[3H]Dihydrotetrabenazine ([3H]DTBZ), a specific ligand for the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2), has been used to characterize the integrity of monoaminergic nerve terminals in experimental animals and humans. The purpose of the present studies was to compare the loss of VMAT2 binding with the loss of other neurochemical markers of the dopamine (DA)(More)
Defects in mitochondrial energy metabolism have been implicated in the pathology of several neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, the reactive metabolites generated from the metabolism and oxidation of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) are thought to contribute to the damage to neurons of the basal ganglia. We have previously demonstrated that(More)