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Animal behaviour arises from computations in neuronal circuits, but our understanding of these computations has been frustrated by the lack of detailed synaptic connection maps, or connectomes. For example, despite intensive investigations over half a century, the neuronal implementation of local motion detection in the insect visual system remains elusive.(More)
Pyramidal neurons within the cerebral cortex are known to make long-range horizontal connections via an extensive axonal collateral system. The synaptic characteristics and specificities of these connections were studied at the ultrastructural level. Two superficial layer pyramidal cells in the primate striate cortex were labeled by intracellular injections(More)
This study describes regeneration of the neural retina in juvenile goldfish. The retina was destroyed with an intraocular injection of ouabain, a technique introduced by Wolburg and colleagues (Maier and Wolburg, 1979; Kurz-Isler and Wolburg, 1982). We confirmed their observation that the level of damage produced by the toxin was graded, in that neurons in(More)
N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein (NSF) is an ATPase necessary for vesicle trafficking, including exocytosis. Current models hold that NSF is required in a step that readies vesicles for fusion by disassembling postfusion SNARE protein complexes allowing them to participate in further rounds of vesicle cycling. Whereas most organisms have only one(More)
Dividing cells and their progeny in retinae of young goldfish were labeled with [3H]thymidine, and selected cells were reconstructed from serial sections processed for electron microscopic autoradiography. Our goals were to characterize the cells that were identified as rod precursors in previous light microscopic autoradiographical studies and to determine(More)
While the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of Drosophila has emerged as a model system to study synaptic function and development, little attention has been given to the study of the adult NMJ. Here we report an immunocytochemical and morphological characterization of an adult NMJ preparation of the prothorax. All muscles examined were innervated by(More)
We reconstructed the synaptic circuits of seven columns in the second neuropil or medulla behind the fly's compound eye. These neurons embody some of the most stereotyped circuits in one of the most miniaturized of animal brains. The reconstructions allow us, for the first time to our knowledge, to study variations between circuits in the medulla's(More)
We describe a technique, modified from Langford and Coggeshall [Anat. Rec., 197 (1980) 297-303; J. Comp. Neurol., 203 (1981) 745-750], for enhancing membrane contrast and defining cellular boundaries, that is useful for reconstructing individual cells from ultrathin sections. The cells of interest in our study were neuronal germinal cells and their(More)
Vesicle fusion in eukaryotic cells is mediated by SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors). In neurons, the t-SNARE SNAP-25 is essential for synaptic vesicle fusion but its exact role in this process is unknown. We have isolated a SNAP-25 temperature-sensitive paralytic mutant in Drosophila, SNAP-25(ts). The mutation(More)
The role of sound in Drosophila melanogaster courtship, along with its perception via the antennae, is well established, as is the ability of this fly to learn in classical conditioning protocols. Here, we demonstrate that a neutral acoustic stimulus paired with a sucrose reward can be used to condition the proboscis-extension reflex, part of normal feeding(More)