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We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the approximately 160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion, in conjunction with the shaping of metabolic pathways that likely(More)
We present the first molecular phylogenetic examination of the evolutionary position of retortamonads, a group of mitochondrion-lacking flagellates usually found as commensals of the intestinal tracts of vertebrates. Our phylogenies include small subunit ribosomal gene sequences from six retortamonad isolates-four from mammals and two from amphibians. All(More)
The acquisitions of mitochondria and plastids were important events in the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, supplying it with compartmentalized bioenergetic and biosynthetic factories. Ancient invasions by eubacteria through symbiosis more than a billion years ago initiated these processes. Advances in geochemistry, molecular phylogeny, and cell biology(More)
Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogential tract where it remains extracellular and adheres to epithelial cells. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Here, we use a combination of methodologies including cell fractionation,(More)
Trichomonas vaginalis is a unicellular microaerophilic eukaryote that lacks mitochondria yet contains an alternative organelle, the hydrogenosome, involved in pyruvate metabolism. Pathways between the two organelles differ substantially: in hydrogenosomes, pyruvate oxidation is catalysed by pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), with electrons donated(More)
We review the literature on the neurobiology of rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep states and associated dreams. REM is associated with enhanced activation of limbic and amygdalar networks and decreased activation in dorsal prefrontal regions while stage II NREM is associated with greater cortical activation than REM. Not(More)
Transcription start site selection in eukaryotes is mediated through combinations of the TATA, initiator (Inr), and downstream promoter elements (DPE). In Trichomonas vaginalis, a parabasalian flagellate thought to represent an ancient eukaryote lineage, the Inr appears to be solely responsible for start site selection and is recognized by the initiator(More)
INTRODUCTION We tested the hypothesis that REM sleep contributes to core features of cognitive dysfunction of anxious depression including negative self-appraisals, biased memory processing and unpleasant dream content. METHODS After a habituation night in a sleep lab, a convenience sample of 35 healthy college students and 20 depressed/anxious students(More)
Most modern eukaryotes diverged from a common ancestor that contained the alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont that gave rise to mitochondria. The 'amitochondriate' anaerobic protist parasites that have been studied to date, such as Giardia and Trichomonas harbor mitochondrion-related organelles, such as mitosomes or hydrogenosomes. Yet there is one remaining(More)
Eukaryotic RNAs typically contain 5' cap structures that have been primarily studied in yeast and metazoa. The only known RNA cap structure in unicellular protists is the unusual Cap4 on Trypanosoma brucei mRNAs. We have found that T. vaginalis mRNAs are protected by a 5' cap structure, however, contrary to that typical for eukaryotes, T. vaginalis(More)