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We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the approximately 160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion, in conjunction with the shaping of metabolic pathways that likely(More)
We present the first molecular phylogenetic examination of the evolutionary position of retortamonads, a group of mitochondrion-lacking flagellates usually found as commensals of the intestinal tracts of vertebrates. Our phylogenies include small subunit ribosomal gene sequences from six retortamonad isolates-four from mammals and two from amphibians. All(More)
The acquisitions of mitochondria and plastids were important events in the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, supplying it with compartmentalized bioenergetic and biosynthetic factories. Ancient invasions by eubacteria through symbiosis more than a billion years ago initiated these processes. Advances in geochemistry, molecular phylogeny, and cell biology(More)
Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogential tract where it remains extracellular and adheres to epithelial cells. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Here, we use a combination of methodologies including cell fractionation,(More)
The morphogenesis of hydrogenosomes in several trichomonad species (Tritrichomonas foetus, Trichomonas vaginalis, Tritrichomonas suis, Trichomonas gallinae, Tritrichomonas augusta and Monocercomonas sp) was investigated by transmission electron microscopy of thin sections and freeze-fracture replicas of whole cells or the isolated organelle. Close(More)
Trichomonads are among the earliest eukaryotes to diverge from the main line of eukaryotic descent. Keeping with their ancient nature, these facultative anaerobic protists lack two "hallmark" organelles found in most eukaryotes: mitochondria and peroxisomes. Trichomonads do, however, contain an unusual organelle involved in carbohydrate metabolism called(More)
Trichomonas vaginalis is a unicellular microaerophilic eukaryote that lacks mitochondria yet contains an alternative organelle, the hydrogenosome, involved in pyruvate metabolism. Pathways between the two organelles differ substantially: in hydrogenosomes, pyruvate oxidation is catalysed by pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), with electrons donated(More)
Transcription start site selection in eukaryotes is mediated through combinations of the TATA, initiator (Inr), and downstream promoter elements (DPE). In Trichomonas vaginalis, a parabasalian flagellate thought to represent an ancient eukaryote lineage, the Inr appears to be solely responsible for start site selection and is recognized by the initiator(More)
Tumour necrosis factor alpha (ref. 1), synthesized primarily by monocytes in response to various invasive agents, induces a wide variety of biological effects relevant to regulating cell growth and differentiation, including the selective killing of some tumour cells and the growth stimulation of some normal fibroblasts. As tumour necrosis factor (TNF)(More)
Most modern eukaryotes diverged from a common ancestor that contained the alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont that gave rise to mitochondria. The 'amitochondriate' anaerobic protist parasites that have been studied to date, such as Giardia and Trichomonas harbor mitochondrion-related organelles, such as mitosomes or hydrogenosomes. Yet there is one remaining(More)