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The acquisitions of mitochondria and plastids were important events in the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, supplying it with compartmentalized bioenergetic and biosynthetic factories. Ancient invasions by eubacteria through symbiosis more than a billion years ago initiated these processes. Advances in geochemistry, molecular phylogeny, and cell biology(More)
We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the approximately 160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion, in conjunction with the shaping of metabolic pathways that likely(More)
We present the first molecular phylogenetic examination of the evolutionary position of retortamonads, a group of mitochondrion-lacking flagellates usually found as commensals of the intestinal tracts of vertebrates. Our phylogenies include small subunit ribosomal gene sequences from six retortamonad isolates-four from mammals and two from amphibians. All(More)
Trichomonad parasites such as Tritrichomonas foetus produce large amounts of putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane), which is transported out of the cell via an antiport mechanism which results in the uptake of a molecule of spermine. The importance of putrescine to the survival of the parasite and its role in the biology of T. foetus was investigated by use of the(More)
Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogential tract where it remains extracellular and adheres to epithelial cells. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Here, we use a combination of methodologies including cell fractionation,(More)
The complete nucleotide sequences of two chromosomally linked actin genes from the sea urchinStrongylocentrotus franciscanus are presented. The genes are separated by 5.7 kilobases, occur in the same transcriptional orientation, and contain introns in identical positions. The structures and nucleotide sequences of the two genes are extremely similar,(More)
Trichomonas vaginalis is a unicellular microaerophilic eukaryote that lacks mitochondria yet contains an alternative organelle, the hydrogenosome, involved in pyruvate metabolism. Pathways between the two organelles differ substantially: in hydrogenosomes, pyruvate oxidation is catalysed by pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), with electrons donated(More)
Eukaryotes have evolved elaborate splicing mechanisms to remove introns that would otherwise destroy the protein-coding capacity of genes. Nuclear premRNA splicing requires sequence motifs in the intron and is mediated by a ribonucleoprotein complex, the spliceosome. Here we demonstrate the presence of a splicing apparatus in the protist Trichomonas(More)
NIH 3T3 cells were transfected with plasmids containing Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeats and either chicken c-src or v-src genes. In contrast with the effects observed after transfection with plasmids containing c-src and avian retrovirus or simian virus 40 promoter-enhancers (H. Hanafusa, H. Iba, T. Takeya, and F. R. Cross, p. 1-8, in G.(More)