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We have found that two-photon fluorescence imaging of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) provides the sensitivity and spatial three-dimensional resolution to resolve metabolic signatures in processes of astrocytes and neurons deep in highly scattering brain tissue slices. This functional imaging reveals spatiotemporal partitioning of glycolytic and(More)
The peripheral nervous system has complex and intricate ramifications throughout many target organ systems. To date this system has not been effectively labeled by genetic markers, due largely to inadequate transcriptional specification by minimum promoter constructs. Here we describe transgenic mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) is(More)
PROBLEM During the third trimester of pregnancy bovine trophoblast cells in the interplacentomal and arcade regions of the placenta express major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) antigens. At parturition immunological recognition of MHC-I antigens appears to contribute to normal placental release. Therefore, we hypothesized that during late(More)
In viviparous animals, regulation of expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens by the trophoblast cells, which constitute the outermost layer of the placenta, seems to be critical for maternal immunological acceptance of an allogeneic fetus. Cattle are unusual in this regard, since the bovine trophoblast cells, in specific(More)
All measures of cognitive processes correlate moderately at the phenotypic level and correlate substantially at the genetic level. General cognitive ability (g) refers to what diverse cognitive processes have in common. Our goal is to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with high g compared with average g. In order to detect QTLs of small(More)
Directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells indicates that mesodermal lineages in the mammalian heart (cardiac, endothelial, and smooth muscle cells) develop from a common, multipotent cardiovascular precursor. To isolate and characterize the lineage potential of a resident pool of cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPcs), we developed BAC transgenic(More)
Early embryonic losses are much higher in nuclear transfer (cloned) pregnancies, and this is a major impediment to improving the efficiency of cloned animal production. In cattle, many of these losses occur around the time of placental attachment from the fourth week of gestation. We studied the potential for altered immunologic status of cloned pregnancies(More)
In this work we explored the hypothesis that variation in the gene encoding apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a factor modifying general cognitive ability (g). A case control sample of 101 high g and 101 average g children was scored for ApoE genotypes and two variants in the transcriptional regulatory region of the gene (Th1/E47cs and -491 AT). No evidence of(More)
This paper reviews bovine placental development, anatomy (microscopic and gross), nomenclature and classification. The paper focuses on the biology of those specialized cells that arise from the outermost layer of very early embryos, the trophoblast cells, and on placental macrophages, cells that play a key role in fetal/placental defense. Data is presented(More)