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C. albicans triggers recurrent infections of the alimentary tract mucosa that result from biofilm growth. Although the ability of C. albicans to form a biofilm on abiotic surfaces has been well documented in recent years, no information exists on biofilms that form directly on mucosal surfaces. The objectives of this study were to characterize the structure(More)
Porphyromonas gingivalis is an anaerobic microorganism that inhabits the oral cavity, where oxidative stress represents a constant challenge. A putative transcriptional regulator associated with oxidative stress, an oxyR homologue, is known from the P. gingivalis W83 genome sequence. We used microarrays to characterize the response of P. gingivalis to H2O2(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND This study aims to determine the relationship between the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the thirteen herbs and two fungi extracts, and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. METHODS Antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: an antioxidant activity assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a DPPH(More)
High throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is a cost-effective method for characterization of oral bacterial communities. However, before undertaking large-scale studies, it is necessary to understand the technique-associated limitations and intrinsic variability of the oral ecosystem. In this work we evaluated bias in species(More)
Fungi are a large, complex group, increasingly recognized as emerging threats. Their roles as modifiers of health mandate accurate portrayals of fungal communities in humans. As an entry point into the airways and gastrointestinal tract, fungi in the mouth are relevant to several biocompartments. We have revised current practices in sequence-based taxonomy(More)
The authors compared the differences in tolerance to oxygen of the anaerobic periodontopathic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis, and explored the possibility that F. nucleatum might be able to support the growth of P. gingivalis in aerated and CO2-depleted environments. Both micro-organisms were grown as monocultures and in(More)
Mitis-group streptococci are ubiquitous oral commensals that can promote polybacterial biofilm virulence. Using a novel murine oral mucosal co-infection model we sought to determine for the first time whether these organisms promote the virulence of C. albicans mucosal biofilms in oropharyngeal infection and explored mechanisms of pathogenic synergy. We(More)
High throughput sequencing has accelerated knowledge on the oral microbiome. While the bacterial component of oral communities has been extensively characterized, the role of the fungal microbiota in the oral cavity is largely unknown. Interactions among fungi and bacteria are likely to influence oral health as exemplified by the synergistic relationship(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE The advent of next-generation sequencing has significantly facilitated characterization of the oral microbiome. Despite great efforts in streamlining the processes of sequencing and data curation, upstream steps required for amplicon library generation could still influence 16S rRNA gene-based microbial profiles. Among upstream(More)
The negative factor (Nef) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an accessory protein that is thought to be integral to HIV-associated immune- and neuroimmune pathogenesis. Here, we show that nef-transfected microglia-released Nef+ exosome (exNef) disrupts the apical blood–brain barrier (BBB) and that only nef-transfected microglia release Nef in(More)