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The goals of this study were to better understand the ecology of oral subgingival communities in health and periodontitis and elucidate the relationship between inflammation and the subgingival microbiome. Accordingly, we used 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries and quantitative PCR to characterize the subgingival microbiome of 22 subjects with(More)
The initial microbial colonization of tooth surfaces is a repeatable and selective process, with certain bacterial species predominating in the nascent biofilm. Characterization of the initial microflora is the first step in understanding interactions among community members that shape ensuing biofilm development. Using molecular methods and a retrievable(More)
C. albicans triggers recurrent infections of the alimentary tract mucosa that result from biofilm growth. Although the ability of C. albicans to form a biofilm on abiotic surfaces has been well documented in recent years, no information exists on biofilms that form directly on mucosal surfaces. The objectives of this study were to characterize the structure(More)
Fungi are a large, complex group, increasingly recognized as emerging threats. Their roles as modifiers of health mandate accurate portrayals of fungal communities in humans. As an entry point into the airways and gastrointestinal tract, fungi in the mouth are relevant to several biocompartments. We have revised current practices in sequence-based taxonomy(More)
High throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is a cost-effective method for characterization of oral bacterial communities. However, before undertaking large-scale studies, it is necessary to understand the technique-associated limitations and intrinsic variability of the oral ecosystem. In this work we evaluated bias in species(More)
Porphyromonas gingivalis is an anaerobic microorganism that inhabits the oral cavity, where oxidative stress represents a constant challenge. A putative transcriptional regulator associated with oxidative stress, an oxyR homologue, is known from the P. gingivalis W83 genome sequence. We used microarrays to characterize the response of P. gingivalis to H2O2(More)
Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 10953 was grown in continuous culture and the atmosphere changed stepwise from nitrogen (anaerobiosis) to a mixture of air: oxygen (40:60). No significant differences in biomass were observed and the baseline low level of superoxide dismutase increased only slightly; catalase and peroxidase activities were never detected but the(More)
Candida albicans is a commensal colonizer of the gastrointestinal tract of humans, where it coexists with highly diverse bacterial communities. It is not clear whether this interaction limits or promotes the potential of C. albicans to become an opportunistic pathogen. Here we investigate the interaction between C. albicans and three species of streptococci(More)
Studies from the 1960s indicated that increased microbial diversity and a succession in the predominant bacterial species in plaque correlate with the appearance of gingival inflammation and the development of periodontal disease. In the past few years, molecular characterization of the microflora found in various sites of the oral cavity of different(More)
Streptococci are the primary component of the multispecies oral biofilm known as supragingival dental plaque; they grow by fermentation of sugars to organic acids, e.g., lactic acid. Veillonellae, a ubiquitous component of early plaque, are unable to use sugars; they ferment organic acids, such as lactate, to a mixture of shorter-chain-length acids, CO(2),(More)