Patricia Hernández-Martínez

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First generation of insect-protected transgenic corn (Bt-corn) was based on the expression of Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa proteins. Currently, the trend is the combination of two or more genes expressing proteins that bind to different targets. In addition to broadening the spectrum of action, this strategy helps to delay the evolution of resistance in exposed insect(More)
Bacillus thuringiensis is the most effective microbial control agent for controlling numerous species from different insect orders. The main threat for the long term use of B. thuringiensis in pest control is the ability of insects to develop resistance. Thus, the identification of insect genes involved in conferring resistance is of paramount importance. A(More)
BACKGROUND Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) has developed resistance to a wide range of chemical insecticides. Products based on Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are used in integrated pest management as an ecologically friendly alternative for pest control. Since there are few B. thuringiensis Cry proteins highly active against S. exigua, it is desirable to(More)
Repat (REsponse to PAThogens) genes were first identified in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in response to Bacillus thuringiensis and baculovirus exposure. Since then, additional repat gene homologs have been identified in different studies. In this study the comprehensive larval transcriptome from S. exigua was analyzed for the(More)
Bioinsecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis have long been used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides to control insect pests. In this review, we focus on insects of the genus Spodoptera, including relevant polyphagous species that are primary and secondary pests of many crops, and how B. thuringiensis toxins can be used for Spodoptera spp. pest(More)
The insect immune system is comprised of both humoral and cellular components that are mobilized in response to parasitic or pathogenic infections. Activation of the immune response implies a considerable expenditure of energy and that is why insects rely on inducible pathways that are activated after coming into contact with the pathogenic agent. Known as(More)
Nine of the most common lepidopteran active Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis have been tested for activity against Spodoptera exigua. Because of possible intraspecific variability, three laboratory strains (FRA, HOL, and MUR) have been used. Mortality assays were performed with the three strains. LC(50) values for the active toxins were determined(More)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb, Cry3Ca, and Cry7Aa have been reported to be toxic against larvae of the genus Cylas, which are important pests of sweet potato worldwide and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. However, relatively little is known about the processing and binding interactions of these coleopteran-specific Cry proteins. The aim of the present(More)
Cry1Fa insecticidal protein was successfully radiolabeled with (125)I-Na. Specific binding to brush border membrane vesicles was shown for the lepidopteran species Ostrinia nubilalis, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa armigera, Heliothis virescens, and Plutella xylostella. Homologous competition assays were performed to obtain(More)
Previous studies reported "mode 1" Bacillus thuringiensis resistance in a colony of diamondback moths (NO-QA), and recently, this resistance has been mapped to an ABC transporter (ABCC2) locus. We report the lack of binding of Cry1Fa to insects derived from this colony and compare our data with those from other insects with ABCC2-associated resistance.