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32,019 women completed a questionnaire on alcohol use at their first antenatal visit; thereafter they were followed to assess the incidence of spontaneous abortions. 51.7% reported drinking no alcohol in early pregnancy; 44.7% had less than 1 drink daily; and 2.4, 0.4, and 0.1% had an average of 1-2, 3-5, or more than 6 drinks respectively. Life-table(More)
OBJECTIVES Medical errors cause significant morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Specialty-based, voluntary reporting of medical errors by health care providers is an important strategy that may enhance patient safety. We developed a voluntary, anonymous, Internet-based reporting system for medical errors in neonatal intensive care, evaluated(More)
Medical and technological advances in the care of infants with low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams, or 5 pounds, 8 ounces) and very low birth weight (less than 1,500 grams, or 3 pounds, 5 ounces) have substantially increased the survival rate for these infants and have led to concerns about the demands their care places upon their families and society.(More)
The effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on the length of gestation were examined in a prospective study of 30,596 pregnant women in northern California. Preterm births (less than 37 weeks' gestation) were 20% more common in women smoking at least one pack of cigarettes per day. This effect was strongest for births occurring before 33 weeks,(More)
OBJECTIVE Our aim was to evaluate prospectively the effects of cocaine and marijuana use on pregnancy outcomes. STUDY DESIGN A prospective multicenter cohort study was conducted at seven university-based prenatal clinics in the United States from 1984 to 1989. The cohort described herein consisted of a multiethnic population of 7470 pregnant women.(More)
The relationship between physical activity during pregnancy, preterm birth, and gestational age-adjusted birth weight was investigated prospectively in a cohort of 7101 women. This study is one of few to evaluate both employment- and non-employment-related physical activity. Prolonged periods of standing were associated with a modestly increased risk of(More)
The relationship between smoking during pregnancy and congenital malformations was studied in prospective studies of 33,434 live births in the Kaiser-Permanente Birth Defects Study and 53,512 live births in the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). In the Kaiser study, statistically significant positive associations (P less than .05) were observed for(More)
The incidence of spontaneous abortions was observed among 31,917 women followed from their first prenatal visit. Life-table analysis showed that losses in the first trimester were not significantly affected by previous induced abortions, nor was any change in the risk of second-trimester losses detected among the 1493 parous women who reported having had(More)
OBJECTIVE To make measurable improvements in the quality and cost of neonatal intensive care using a multidisciplinary collaborative quality improvement model. DESIGN Interventional study. Patient demographic and clinical information for infants with birth weight 501 to 1500 g was collected using the Vermont Oxford Network Database for January 1, 1994 to(More)
Differences in mean birth weight and low birth weight (less than 2.5 kg) are analyzed among Asians, blacks, Hispanics, and whites who were enrolled in the Northern California Kaiser-Permanente Birth Defects Study, a prospective study of 29,415 pregnancy outcomes. Large differences in birth weight among babies of different ethnic groups persist after(More)