Patricia Fitzgerald-Bocarsly

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Interferons (IFNs) are the most important cytokines in antiviral immune responses. "Natural IFN-producing cells" (IPCs) in human blood express CD4 and major histocompatibility complex class II proteins, but have not been isolated and further characterized because of their rarity, rapid apoptosis, and lack of lineage markers. Purified IPCs are here shown to(More)
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) produce high levels of type I IFN upon stimulation with viruses, while monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) produce significantly lower levels. To find what determines the high production of type I IFN in PDC, we examined the relative levels of IRF transcription factors, some of which play critical roles(More)
The natural interferon (IFN)-producing cell is now known to be identical to the plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC). These are Lin-, CD123+, CD11c-, and human leukocyte antigen-DR+ cells that secrete large amounts of IFN-alpha (1-2 IU/cell) when stimulated by enveloped viruses such as herpes simplex virus. In the current study, we have evaluated chemokine(More)
This study examined alteration of specific virulence traits associated with phenotypic changes seen when a low-passage disease-associated and well maintained parent strain of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was compared to a laboratory-grown spontaneous variant/mutant. Clinical isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans recovered from periodontitis patients(More)
The immune response modifiers, imiquimod and resiquimod, are TLR7 agonists that induce type I interferon in numerous species, including humans. Recently, it was shown that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are the primary interferon-producing cells in the blood in response to viral infections. Here, we characterize the activation of human pDC with the TLR7(More)
It has been 50 years since the initial descriptions of what are now known as plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and type I IFN. pDC, which are infrequent cells found in the peripheral blood and lymphoid organs, are the most potent producers of type I and type III IFNs in the body. pDC produce IFN-alpha in response to both DNA and RNA enveloped viruses by(More)
Interferons (IFNs) are critical components of the host immune system, serving as antiviral agents, immunomodulators and inhibitors of cell growth. Among peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the primary IFN-alpha-producing cell is a light density, HLA-DR+ cell negative for cell surface markers typical for T cells, B cells, monocytes, natural-killer or(More)
The human peripheral blood mononuclear cells responsible for IFN-alpha production in response to viral stimuli have been most often described as either monocytes (as typified by the response to Sendai virus) or as a light density, HLA-DR+ population which is negative for most cell surface markers characteristic of mature T cells, B cells, monocytes, or(More)
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection exhibit a progressively marked decrease in the production of virus-induced interferon (IFN)-alpha, a finding that correlates with and is highly predictive of disease progression and opportunistic infections. The major IFN-alpha producing population has(More)
Interferon regulatory factor-5 (IRF-5) is a mediator of virus-induced immune activation and type I interferon (IFN) gene regulation. In human primary plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), IRF-5 is transcribed into four distinct alternatively spliced isoforms (V1, V2, V3, and V4), whereas in human primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells two additional new(More)