Patricia D. Walshaw

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OBJECTIVES Research has found that bipolar spectrum disorders are associated with Behavioral Approach System (BAS) hypersensitivity and both unipolar and bipolar depression are associated with high Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) sensitivity, but prospective studies of these relationships are lacking. We tested whether BAS and BIS sensitivities(More)
The authors examined concurrent and prospective associations of behavioral approach system (BAS)-relevant and non-BAS-relevant cognitive styles with bipolar spectrum disorders. Controlling for depressive and hypomanic/manic symptoms, 195 individuals with bipolar spectrum disorders scored higher than 194 demographically similar normal controls on BAS(More)
In the current study we sought to dissociate the component processes of working memory (WM) (vigilance, encoding and maintenance) that may be differentially impaired in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We collected electroencephalographic (EEG) data from 52 children with ADHD and 47 typically developing (TD) children, ages 7-14 years, while(More)
A number of studies have supported the hypothesis that negative attributional styles may confer vulnerability to the development of depression. The goal of this study was to explore factors that may contribute to the development of negative attributional styles in children. As hypothesized, elevated levels of depressive symptoms and hopelessness at the(More)
Often, there is diagnostic confusion between bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in youth due to similar behavioral presentations. Both disorders have been implicated as having abnormal functioning in the prefrontal cortex; however, there may be subtle differences in the manner in which the prefrontal cortex functions(More)
In this article, we review empirical research on the role of individuals' current environmental contexts, cognitive styles, and developmental histories as risk factors for the onset, course, and expression of bipolar spectrum disorders. Our review is focused on the following over arching question: Do psychosocial factors truly contribute risk to the onset,(More)
Why is adolescence an "age of risk" for onset of bipolar spectrum disorders? We discuss three clinical phenomena of bipolar disorder associated with adolescence (adolescent age of onset, gender differences, and specific symptom presentation) that provide the point of departure for this article. We present the cognitive vulnerability-transactional stress(More)
BACKGROUND The inferior frontal cortical (IFC)-striatal network plays an integral role in response inhibition and is compromised in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BP) or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Prior BP functional neuroimaging studies have not accounted for ADHD comorbidity despite its high prevalence. METHODS The authors(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormal brain laterality (ABL) is well established in ADHD. However, its clinical specificity and association to cognitive and clinical symptoms is not yet understood. Previous studies indicate increased right hemisphere (RH) contribution in both ADHD and reading impaired samples. The current study investigates whether this ABL characteristic(More)
Family environmental variables are risk factors for recurrent courses of mood disorder in adolescents. The present study examined the association between parental expressed emotion (EE)-critical, hostile and/or emotionally overinvolved attitudes toward a concurrently ill offspring-and suicidal ideation in adolescents with bipolar disorder. The sample(More)