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Glucocorticoids are potent immunosuppressive drugs, but their mechanism is poorly understood. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B), a regulator of immune system and inflammation genes, may be a target for glucocorticoid-mediated immunosuppression. The activation of NF-kappa B involves the targeted degradation of its cytoplasmic inhibitor, I kappa B alpha,(More)
The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) has been implicated in both cell death and survival responses to different stimuli. Here we reexamine the function of JNK in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-stimulated cell death using fibroblasts isolated from wild-type, Mkk4(-/-) Mkk7(-/-), and Jnk1(-/-) Jnk2(-/-) mice. We demonstrate that JNK can act to suppress(More)
NF-kappa B and C/EBP represent distinct families of transcription factors that target unique DNA enhancer elements. The heterodimeric NF-kappa B complex is composed of two subunits, a 50- and a 65-kDa protein. All members of the NF-kappa B family, including the product of the proto-oncogene c-rel, are characterized by their highly homologous approximately(More)
NF-kappaB is a principal transcriptional regulator of diverse cytokine-mediated processes and is tightly controlled by the IkappaB kinase complex (IKK-alpha/beta/gamma). IKK-beta and IKK-gamma are critical for cytokine-induced NF-kappaB function, whereas IKK-alpha is thought to be involved in other regulatory pathways. However, recent data suggest a role(More)
While NF-kappaB is considered to play key roles in the development and progression of many cancers, the mechanisms whereby this transcription factor is activated in cancer are poorly understood. A key oncoprotein in a variety of cancers is the serine-threonine kinase Akt, which can be activated by mutations in PI3K, by loss of expression/activity of PTEN,(More)
Using a sensitive transfection-tumorigenicity assay, we have isolated a novel transforming gene from the DNA of two patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Sequence analysis indicates that the product of this gene, axl, is a receptor tyrosine kinase. Overexpression of axl cDNA in NIH 3T3 cells induces neoplastic transformation with the concomitant(More)
Mitogenic activation of expression of immediate-early genes, such as c-fos, is controlled through signal-induced phosphorylation of constitutively bound transcription factors that is correlated with a nucleosomal response that involves inducible chromatin modifications, such as histone phosphorylation and acetylation. Here we have explored a potential role(More)
The IκB kinase (IKK) pathway is an essential mediator of inflammatory, oncogenic, and cell stress pathways. Recently IKK was shown to be essential for autophagy induction in mammalian cells independent of its ability to regulate NF-κB, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. Here we demonstrate that the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K is an IKK(More)
The ras proto-oncogene is frequently mutated in human tumors and functions to chronically stimulate signal transduction cascades resulting in the synthesis or activation of specific transcription factors, including Ets, c-Myc, c-Jun, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). These Ras-responsive transcription factors are required for transformation, but the(More)
NF-kappa B is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of numerous genes encoding proteins involved in immune function, in inflammation or in cellular growth control. NF-kappa B is typically characterized as a heterodimer of a 50-kDa subunit (p50) and a 65-kDa (p65) subunit. Interestingly, the p50 subunit is derived by processing of a 105-kDa(More)