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Glucocorticoids are potent immunosuppressive drugs, but their mechanism is poorly understood. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B), a regulator of immune system and inflammation genes, may be a target for glucocorticoid-mediated immunosuppression. The activation of NF-kappa B involves the targeted degradation of its cytoplasmic inhibitor, I kappa B alpha,(More)
NF-kappa B and C/EBP represent distinct families of transcription factors that target unique DNA enhancer elements. The heterodimeric NF-kappa B complex is composed of two subunits, a 50- and a 65-kDa protein. All members of the NF-kappa B family, including the product of the proto-oncogene c-rel, are characterized by their highly homologous approximately(More)
While NF-kappaB is considered to play key roles in the development and progression of many cancers, the mechanisms whereby this transcription factor is activated in cancer are poorly understood. A key oncoprotein in a variety of cancers is the serine-threonine kinase Akt, which can be activated by mutations in PI3K, by loss of expression/activity of PTEN,(More)
The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) has been implicated in both cell death and survival responses to different stimuli. Here we reexamine the function of JNK in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-stimulated cell death using fibroblasts isolated from wild-type, Mkk4(-/-) Mkk7(-/-), and Jnk1(-/-) Jnk2(-/-) mice. We demonstrate that JNK can act to suppress(More)
NF-kappaB is a principal transcriptional regulator of diverse cytokine-mediated processes and is tightly controlled by the IkappaB kinase complex (IKK-alpha/beta/gamma). IKK-beta and IKK-gamma are critical for cytokine-induced NF-kappaB function, whereas IKK-alpha is thought to be involved in other regulatory pathways. However, recent data suggest a role(More)
Using a sensitive transfection-tumorigenicity assay, we have isolated a novel transforming gene from the DNA of two patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Sequence analysis indicates that the product of this gene, axl, is a receptor tyrosine kinase. Overexpression of axl cDNA in NIH 3T3 cells induces neoplastic transformation with the concomitant(More)
The ras proto-oncogene is frequently mutated in human tumors and functions to chronically stimulate signal transduction cascades resulting in the synthesis or activation of specific transcription factors, including Ets, c-Myc, c-Jun, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). These Ras-responsive transcription factors are required for transformation, but the(More)
Loss of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) in mice results in embryonic lethality via hepatocyte apoptosis. Consistent with this result, cells from these mice have diminished nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity, implying a functional role for GSK-3beta in regulating NF-kappaB. Here, we have explored mechanisms by which GSK-3beta may control(More)
Mitogenic activation of expression of immediate-early genes, such as c-fos, is controlled through signal-induced phosphorylation of constitutively bound transcription factors that is correlated with a nucleosomal response that involves inducible chromatin modifications, such as histone phosphorylation and acetylation. Here we have explored a potential role(More)
NF-kappa B is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of numerous genes encoding proteins involved in immune function, in inflammation or in cellular growth control. NF-kappa B is typically characterized as a heterodimer of a 50-kDa subunit (p50) and a 65-kDa (p65) subunit. Interestingly, the p50 subunit is derived by processing of a 105-kDa(More)