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In this paper we report the set-up and results of the Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) organized in conjunction with the MICCAI 2012 and 2013 conferences. Twenty state-of-the-art tumor segmentation algorithms were applied to a set of 65 multi-contrast MR scans of low- and high-grade glioma patients-manually annotated by up to four(More)
UNLABELLED Serial NetEvolve is a flexible simulation program that generates DNA sequences evolved along a tree or recombinant network. It offers a user-friendly Windows graphical interface and a Windows or Linux simulator with a diverse selection of parameters to control the evolutionary model. Serial NetEvolve is a modification of the Treevolve program(More)
A new computational method to study within-host viral evolution is explored to better understand the evolution and pathogenesis of viruses. Traditional phylogenetic tree methods are better suited to study relationships between contemporaneous species, which appear as leaves of a phylogenetic tree. However, viral sequences are often sampled serially from a(More)
MOTIVATION Modern HIV-1, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus antiviral therapies have been successful at keeping viruses suppressed for prolonged periods of time, but therapy failures attributable to the emergence of drug resistant mutations continue to be a distressing reminder that no therapy can fully eradicate these viruses from their host(More)
MOTIVATION Traditional phylogenetic methods assume tree-like evolutionary models and are likely to perform poorly when provided with sequence data from fast-evolving, recombining viruses. Furthermore, these methods assume that all the sequence data are from contemporaneous taxa, which is not valid for serially-sampled data. A more general approach is(More)
BACKGROUND The HIV virus is known for its ability to exploit numerous genetic and evolutionary mechanisms to ensure its proliferation, among them, high replication, mutation and recombination rates. Sliding MinPD, a recently introduced computational method 1, was used to investigate the patterns of evolution of serially-sampled HIV-1 sequence data from(More)
During alternative splicing, the inclusion of an exon in the final mRNA molecule is determined by nuclear proteins that bind cis-regulatory sequences in a target pre-mRNA molecule. A recent study suggested that the regulatory codes of individual RNA-binding proteins may be nearly immutable between very diverse species such as mammals and insects. The model(More)