Patricia Boya

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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) constitutes one of the major checkpoint(s) of apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Recently, the permeabilization of yet another organelle, the lysosome, has been shown to initiate a cell death pathway, in specific circumstances. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) causes the release of cathepsins and(More)
Mammalian cells were observed to die under conditions in which nutrients were depleted and, simultaneously, macroautophagy was inhibited either genetically (by a small interfering RNA targeting Atg5, Atg6/Beclin 1-1, Atg10, or Atg12) or pharmacologically (by 3-methyladenine, hydroxychloroquine, bafilomycin A1, or monensin). Cell death occurred through(More)
Mounting evidence suggests a role for autophagy dysregulation in Parkinson's disease (PD). The bulk degradation of cytoplasmic proteins (including α-synuclein) and organelles (such as mitochondria) is mediated by macroautophagy, which involves the sequestration of cytosolic components into autophagosomes (AP) and its delivery to lysosomes. Accumulation of(More)
Autophagy can promote cell survival or cell death, but the molecular basis underlying its dual role in cancer remains obscure. Here we demonstrate that delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main active component of marijuana, induces human glioma cell death through stimulation of autophagy. Our data indicate that THC induced ceramide accumulation and(More)
Autophagic cell death is morphologically characterized by an accumulation of autophagic vacuoles. Here, we show that inactivation of LAMP2 by RNA interference or by homologous recombination leads to autophagic vacuolization in nutrient-depleted cells. Cells that lack LAMP2 expression showed an enhanced accumulation of vacuoles carrying the marker LC3, yet a(More)
Autophagy maintains cell, tissue and organism homeostasis through degradation. Complex post-translational modulation of the Atg (autophagy-related) proteins adds additional entry points for crosstalk with other cellular processes and helps define cell-type-specific regulations of autophagy. Beyond the simplistic view of a process exclusively dedicated to(More)
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a lysosomotropic amine with cytotoxic properties. Here, we show that HCQ induces signs of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), such as the decrease in the lysosomal pH gradient and the release of cathepsin B from the lysosomal lumen, followed by signs of apoptosis including caspase activation, phosphatidylserine exposure,(More)
The viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA), encoded by the UL37 gene of human cytomegalovirus, inhibits apoptosis-associated mitochondrial membrane permeabilization by a mechanism different from that of Bcl-2. Here we show that vMIA induces several changes in Bax that resemble those found in apoptotic cells yet take place in(More)