Patricia B. Caldwell

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The persistence of high fertility in sub-Saharan Africa, while all other world regions have been able to control population growth, represents a grave threat. Tradtional explanations for this phenomenon--e.g., lower levels of income, education, health, and urbanization--are not adequate, given the fact that many Asian countries have been able to reduce(More)
Very limited knowledge is available about African women's control over their sexual relations with husbands or other stable partners in situations where there is a high risk of STDs and HIV/AIDS. Such control must be seen as encompassing women's control over their sexuality and reproduction as well as the broader areas over which they can make decisions.(More)
Health-treatment decisions, in much of the world, are affected by the family's ability to meet the cost. In West Africa the situation is more complex because husbands and wives typically have separate budgets. This article reports an exploration of the impact on treatment of divided family budgets in Nigeria where health services now charge for prescribed(More)
Summary Although sexual abstinence has probably been the single most important factor in restricting human fertility, Western researchers have tended to regard it as a phenomenon mostly found outside marriage. The research reported here was carried out amongst the Yoruba, a sub Saharan people, among whom it is more desirable in terms of social stability(More)
In those parts of Sub-Saharan Africa most affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic both public and private reaction to the seriousness of the epidemic have been less than might have been anticipated. This limited reaction weakens national, community and family responses to the epidemic and also reduces the pressure on international donors to provide adequate(More)
There is a strong relationship between male and female circumcision in traditional thought and, north of the equator, in their practice by ethnic groups. The Southwest Nigeria Study, a 1994-95 survey of 1749 males and 1976 females in Nigeria's Ondo, Oyo and Lagos States, is used to examine contemporary levels of circumcision, reasons for carrying out the(More)
The confirmation of a significant number of HIV-positive persons and some deaths due to AIDS in Nigeria has rendered more urgent the study of sexual networking, both for an understanding of the risk of HIV transmission and also that of sexually transmitted diseases, which may serve as a vehicle for HIV infection. This article reports on a research project(More)
Part of a research programme studying methods of combating the AIDS epidemic was a survey and accompanying qualitative research focused on attitudes toward male sexuality and male sexual behaviour outside marriage and the extent and success of female attempts to control it. A survey of 1749 males and 1976 females was conducted in urban and rural populations(More)