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Glutamate excitotoxicity mediated by the AMPA/kainate type of glutamate receptors damages not only neurons but also the myelin-producing cell of the central nervous system, the oligodendrocyte. In multiple sclerosis, myelin, oligodendrocytes and some axons are lost as a result of an inflammatory attack on the central nervous system. Because glutamate is(More)
Glutamate excitotoxicity, recently demonstrated in an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), is evoked by altered glutamate homeostasis. In the present study, we investigated the major regulating factors in glutamate excitotoxicity by immunohistochemistry in MS and control white matter with markers for glutamate production (glutaminase), glutamate(More)
Oxidative stress has been proposed as a pathogenetic mechanism in Alzheimer's disease. One mechanism of oxidative damage is the nitration of tyrosine residues in proteins, mediated by peroxynitrite breakdown. Peroxynitrite, a reaction product of nitric oxide and superoxide radicals, has been implicated in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated excitotoxic(More)
OBJECTIVES To validate a new device, Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA), for the measurement of duration, frequency, and intensity of various types of human physical activity (PA). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES The ability of IDEEA to identify and quantify 32 types of PA, including the most common daily exercise and(More)
Oxidative stress is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Glutathione (GSH), a major cellular antioxidant, is decreased in the substantia nigra pars compacta of PD patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether deprenyl and its desmethyl metabolite, putative neuroprotective agents in the(More)
Oxidative stress has been proposed as a pathogenetic mechanism in Parkinson's disease (PD). One mechanism of oxidative cellular injury is the nitration of protein tyrosine residues, mediated by peroxynitrite, a reaction product of nitric oxide and superoxide radicals. We demonstrate here the presence of nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in Lewy bodies within(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the life circumstances and psychosocial status of individuals with respirator-assisted and respirator-independent high tetraplegia an average of 19 years after spinal cord injury. DESIGN Survey data were analyzed separately for ventilator-assisted and ventilator-independent groups. SETTING Three spinal cord injury rehabilitation(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between patient age and good functional outcome after ischemic stroke with special focus on young patients who were numerically underrepresented in previous evaluations. METHODS Of 43,163 ischemic stroke patients prospectively enrolled in the Austrian Stroke Unit Registry, 6,084 (14.1%) were ≤55 years old. Functional(More)
Oral rabies vaccine-laden baits, with a tetracycline biomarker, were distributed in Pinellas County (Florida, USA) by helicopter drop and from cars from January to April 1997. A total of 130,320 baits was distributed throughout the county, yielding an average bait density of 185 baits per km2. Bait ingestion was estimated by microscopic detection of(More)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease, although the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Glutamate excitotoxicity has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and others. We examined the effects of aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen on cultured primary rat embryonic neurons from(More)