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PURPOSE To update the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing in breast cancer to improve the accuracy of HER2 testing and its utility as a predictive marker in invasive breast cancer. METHODS ASCO/CAP convened an Update(More)
Wall teichoic acid (WTA) comprises a class of glycopolymers covalently attached to the peptidoglycan of gram positive bacteria. In Listeria monocytogenes, mutations that prevent addition of certain WTA decorating sugars are attenuating. However, the steps required for decoration and the pathogenic process interrupted are not well described. We(More)
The prokaryotic, spirochaetal microorganism Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, an arthropod-borne disease of a variety of vertebrates and the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease of humans in the United States. In order to understand better the normal life cycle of B. burgdorferi, an experimental chain of infection was devised(More)
Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to create lesions in fimI, a gene of uncertain function located in the chromosomal gene cluster (fim) involved in Escherichia coli type 1 pilus biosynthesis. Chromosomal fimI mutations produced a piliation-negative phenotype. Complementation analysis indicated that a fimI'-kan insertion mutation and a fimI frameshift(More)
Although mice associated with a single bacterial species have been used to provide a simple model for analysis of host-bacteria relationships, bacteria have been shown to display adaptability when grown in a variety of novel environments. In this study, changes associated with the host-bacterium relationship in mice monoassociated with Escherichia coli K-12(More)
Strand Displacement Amplification (SDA) is an isothermal, in vitro method of amplifying DNA that is based upon the combined action of a DNA polymerase and restriction enzyme. Previously, a form of SDA was developed which utilizes the exonuclease deficient Klenow fragment of E. coli polymerase I (exo Klenow) and the restriction enzyme HincII to achieve(More)
A Listeria monocytogenes glcV mutation precludes the binding of certain listerial phages and produces a profound attenuation characterized by the absence of detectable mutants in the livers and spleens of orally inoculated mice. In vitro, we found that the mutant formed plaques on mouse enterocyte monolayers as efficiently as the parent but the plaques(More)
We isolated two insertion mutants of Bordetella avium that exhibited a peculiar clumped-growth phenotype and found them to be attenuated in turkey tracheal colonization. The mutants contained transposon insertions in homologues of the wlbA and wlbL genes of Bordetella pertussis. The wlb genetic locus of B. pertussis has been previously described as(More)
BACKGROUND The rapid pace of genetics research, coupled with evolving standards for informed consent, can create ethical challenges regarding future use of tissue or information from completed clinical trials. The Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Oncology Cooperative Group was faced with an ethical dilemma regarding sharing genetic data from a completed(More)
To explore the structural basis of alternative splicing, we have analyzed the splicing of pre-mRNAs containing an optional exon, E4, from the preprotachykinin gene. This gene encodes substance P and related tachykinin peptides by alternative splicing of a common pre-mRNA. We have shown that alternative splicing of preprotachykinin pre-mRNA occurs by(More)