Patricia A. McElroy

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The noninvasive determination of maximal oxygen uptake or VO2max, defined as a plateau in VO2 during incremental treadmill exercise, is an objective, reproducible, and negotiable measure of the severity of chronic cardiac or circulatory failure. Moreover, this noninvasive variable predicts the exercise cardiac output response and thereby the cardiac(More)
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing includes the monitoring of respiratory gases and airflow to determine oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide (CO2) production, respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute ventilation during a graded maximal exercise test. A plateau in oxygen uptake, which occurs despite an increase in work load, and which is termed maximal oxygen(More)
Nine consecutive patients having severe idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy were studied for their response in ventricular function, coronary sinus blood flow and myocardial oxygen consumption, lactate extraction and efficiency following incremental doses of dobutamine, followed by the combination of dobutamine and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor amrinone.(More)
Present-day technology has greatly facilitated the monitoring of respiratory gas exchange in the clinical exercise laboratory. Despite the growing use of these techniques to assess the severity and progression of disease or therapeutic response in patients with heart failure, the long-term reproducibility of oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production,(More)
Light isometric exercise, such as lifting or carrying loads that require 25% of a maximal voluntary contraction, is frequently reported to cause dyspnea in patients with heart failure. The pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for the appearance of this symptom, however, are unknown. Accordingly, hemodynamic, metabolic and ventilatory responses to 6 min(More)
Cardiac (or myocardial) failure of acute onset or of chronic duration is the result of a structural and/or biochemical remodeling of the myocardium. This, in turn, compromises the contractile performance of the myocardium. The hypertrophic growth of myocytes and the architectural transformation of ventricular chamber size and shape--while initially useful(More)
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of low-potassium dialysate, 11 patients with stable end-stage renal disease and with no history of arrhythmia or digitalis use were studied. All were treated with hemodialysis three times per week. Dialysates with potassium concentrations of 2 mEq/L, 1 mEq/L, or 0 mEq/L were compared. Each patient (exceptions noted in(More)
Rate-responsive cardiac pacing requires a sensitive physiologic variable that is closely correlated with the heart rate-oxygen uptake relation, particularly in patients with heart failure whose cardiac output response to exercise is more dependent on heart rate. Accordingly, the heart rate response to upright exercise was measured in 81 patients with heart(More)
Static or dynamic work in patients with chronic cardiac failure elicits a variety of pathophysiologic responses that impair the ability of the cardiopulmonary unit to sustain O2 delivery at a rate that is commensurate with the O2 requirements of working skeletal muscle. Regional abnormalities in the circulation of skeletal muscle may further compromise(More)