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Human lymphocytes were grown for one replication cycle in BrdU, stained with 33258 Hoechst, exposed to UV light and subsequently treated with 2 x SSC and stained with Giemsa. This technique differentially stains the constitutive heterochromatin of chromosomes 1, 9, 15, 16, and the Y. In the heterochromatin of chromosome 9 both sister chromatids stained(More)
We have performed detailed studies of the spreading of X inactivation in five unbalanced human X;autosome translocations. Using allele-specific RT-PCR we observed long-range silencing of autosomal genes located up to 45 Mb from the translocation breakpoint, directly demonstrating the ability of X inactivation to spread in cis through autosomal DNA.(More)
CONTEXT Klinefelter syndrome is characterized by hypogonadism and infertility, consequent on the presence of extra X chromosome(s). There is limited information about long-term mortality in this syndrome because there have been no large cohort studies. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to investigate mortality in men with Klinefelter syndrome. DESIGN AND(More)
The present report summarizes molecular studies on the parent and meiotic stage of origin of the additional chromosome in 432 fetuses or liveborns with an additional chromosome 13, 14, 15, 21, or 22. Our studies suggest that there is little variation in the origin of nondisjunction among the five acrocentric trisomies and that there is no association(More)
We analyzed 448 independently ascertained reciprocal translocations and 220 inversions referred to our diagnostic laboratory. Twenty-eight percent of the translocations and 8.5% of the inversions arose de novo, the proportion being influenced by the method of ascertainment. It was highest, 47%, among translocations ascertained through an abnormal phenotype.(More)
A new series of 96 pedigrees with the fra(X) syndrome was analysed using complex segregation analysis with pointers, defining affection as any degree of mental impairment. These families were found to exhibit the same segregation pattern as the first series of 110 pedigrees (Sherman et al. 1984). The best estimate for penetrance of mental impairment in(More)
BACKGROUND It is recognized that FMR1 premutation expansions are associated with premature ovarian failure (POF), but the role of smaller repeats at the boundary of premutation and normal is less clear. METHODS We have therefore investigated the incidence of these intermediate sized FMR1 CGG repeats (35-58 repeats) in a series of 366 women ascertained(More)
Small ring (X) chromosomes lacking the XIST gene at Xq13.2 have been associated with a severe phenotype that includes mental retardation, facial dysmorphism and congenital abnormalities. It has been hypothesised that the loss of XIST results in functional disomy for the sequences contained in the ring. We studied 47 females with a 45,X/46,r(X) karyotype and(More)
Heteromorphisms of chromosomes 3, 4, 13–15, 21–22, and Y were studied in a population of 374 mentally retarded patients from diverse ethnic groups. A significant variation in the size of the Y chromosome was found among different racial groups, those of the Orientals and Filipinos being larger than those of the Caucasians or Polynesians. No other(More)