Patricia A Fernandez

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Interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) is a mammalian homolog of CED-3, a protein required for programmed cell death in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The activity of ICE can be specifically inhibited by the product of crmA, a cytokine response modifier gene encoded by cowpox virus. Microinjection of the crmA gene into chicken dorsal root ganglion(More)
We have shown that overexpression of Bcl-x can rescue sympathetic neurones from nerve growth factor deprivation in vitro. We have also examined the distribution and expression of Bcl-x mRNA in the developing and adult nervous system using Northern blot and in situ hybridization. Bcl-x mRNA is widespread during development of the nervous system. In embryonic(More)
Sympathetic neurons undergo programmed cell death (PCD) upon deprivation of nerve growth factor (NGF). PCD of neurons is blocked by inhibitors of the interleukin-1beta converting enzyme (ICE)/Ced-3-like cysteine protease, indicating involvement of this class of proteases in the cell death programme. Here we demonstrate that the proteolytic activities of the(More)
The p53 tumour suppressor gene plays a major role in controlling cell cycle and apoptosis in many different cell types. Here we have examined the status and the potential apoptosis inducing activity of p53 in sympathetic neurons. The p53 protein is expressed in rat sympathetic neurons cultured in the presence of NGF. The protein is not upregulated when(More)
To study molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal cell death, we have used sympathetic neurons from superior cervical ganglia which undergo programmed cell death when deprived of nerve growth factor. These neurons have been microinjected with expression vectors containing cDNAs encoding selected proteins to test their regulatory influence over cell death.(More)
We have isolated a group of monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize either apoptotic or engulfment cells in the interdigit areas of chicken hind limb foot plates, and throughout the embryo. Ten of these antibodies (anti-apogens) detect epitopes on dying cells that colocalize to areas of programmed cell death, characterized by the presence of(More)
Database searching and compound screening identified 1-benzyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyloxy)indazole (benzydamine, 3) as a potent activator of the nitric oxide receptor, soluble guanylate cyclase. A comprehensive structure-activity relationship study surrounding 3 clearly showed that the indazole C-3 dimethylaminopropyloxy substituent was critical for enzyme(More)
Two categories of cell death related to antigens, apogens and engulfens, have been reported to be expressed by apoptotic cells and the cells involved in their engulfment in the immune system, and in mesenchymal tissue in the limb of the chick embryo (ROTTELLO et al., 1994). To determine whether these antigens are also expressed during the process of(More)
Apoptosis and necrosis are two types of cell death with different morphologic features. We report here the isolation of a monoclonal antibody, BV2, that specifically recognizes cells undergoing developmental programmed cell death in different tissues of the chicken and zebra-finch embryos. The antigen recognized by BV2 monoclonal antibody is detected in(More)