Patricia A. Bresnahan

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Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) Nef downregulates surface expression of CD4, an integral component of the functional HIV receptor complex, through accelerated endocytosis of surface receptors and diminished transport of CD4 from the Golgi network to the plasma membrane. HIV-1 Nef also diminishes surface expression of major histocompatibility complex(More)
Most mercury emission inventories only include anthropogenic emissions and neglect the large contribution of the natural mercury cycle due to difficulty in spatially estimating natural emissions and uncertainties in the natural emissions process. The Mercury (Hg) Surface Interface Model (HgSIM) has been developed to estimate the natural emissions of(More)
The nef gene products encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus type 1 (SIV-1) increase viral loads in infected hosts and accelerate clinical progression to AIDS. Nef exhibits a spectrum of biological activities, including the ability to downregulate surface expression of CD4 and major histocompatibility(More)
The Nef protein is unique to primate lentiviruses and is closely linked to accelerated pathogenesis in both human and monkey hosts. Nef acts to down-regulate CD4 and MHC class I, two receptors important for immune function. A recent report demonstrated the presence of two tyrosine motifs in SIV Nef that contribute to its ability to down-regulate CD4 and to(More)
Class I molecules of the major histocompatibility complex bind peptides derived from cytosolic proteins and display them on the cell surface. This function alerts cytotoxic T cells to the presence of intracellular pathogens. Class I molecule assembly requires the association of the heavy chain with beta 2-microglobulin, accompanied by peptide loading via(More)
A new method for evaluating the effectiveness of isopycnic separation processes is developed and explored. This technique is designed to measure the ability of a separation technique to attain the goals of a sorting process. The performance of a separation process is expressed in terms of an inconsistency number, I, whose value ranges from zero to unity.(More)
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