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The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to overcrowding and scarcity of food by arresting development as a dauer larva, a nonfeeding, long-lived, stress-resistant, alternative third-larval stage. Previous work has shown that mutations in the genes daf-2 (encoding a member of the insulin receptor family) and age-1 (encoding a PI 3-kinase) result in(More)
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to conditions of overcrowding and limited food by arresting development as a dauer larva. Genetic analysis of mutations that alter dauer larva formation (daf mutations) is presented along with an updated genetic pathway for dauer vs. nondauer development. Mutations in the daf-2 and daf-23 genes double adult life(More)
The Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larva is specialized for dispersal without growth and is formed under conditions of overcrowding and limited food. The daf-7 gene, required for transducing environmental cues that support continuous development with plentiful food, encodes a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily member. A daf-7 reporter(More)
The daf-9 gene functions to integrate transforming growth factor-beta and insulin-like signaling pathways to regulate Caenorhabditis elegans larval development. Mutations in daf-9 result in transient dauer-like larval arrest, abnormal reproductive development, molting defects and increased adult longevity. The phenotype is sterol-dependent, and dependent on(More)
Maize is a highly diverse species on the gene sequence level. With the recent development of methods to distinguish each of the 10 pairs of homologues in somatic root tip spreads, a wide collection of maize lines was subjected to karyotype analysis to serve as a reference for the community and to examine the spectrum of chromosomal features in the species.(More)
The signal produced by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) often is inconsistent among cells and sensitivity is low. Small DNA targets on the chromatin are difficult to detect. We report here an improved nick translation procedure for Texas red and Alexa Fluor 488 direct labeling of FISH probes. Brighter probes can be obtained by adding excess DNA(More)
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family is a conserved group of signalling molecules within the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. This group, including the Drosophila decapentaplegic (dpp) protein and the mammalian BMPs, mediates cellular interactions and tissue differentiation during development. Here we show that a homologue of(More)
The dauer larva is a developmentally arrested, non-feeding dispersal stage normally formed in response to overcrowding and limited food. The daf-1 gene specifies an intermediate step in a hierarchy of genes thought to specify a pathway for neural transduction of environmental cues. Mutations in daf-1 result in constitutive formation of dauer larvae even in(More)
As a sensory response to starvation or overcrowding, Caenorhabditis elegans second-stage larvae may molt into a developmentally arrested state called the dauer larva. When environmental conditions become favorable for growth, dauer larvae mold and resume development. Some mutants unable to form dauer larvae are simultaneously affected in a number of sensory(More)