The Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larva is specialized for dispersal without growth and is formed under conditions of overcrowding and limited food. The daf-7 gene, required for transducing environmental cues that support continuous development with plentiful food, encodes a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily member. A daf-7 reporter… (More)
The dauer larva of Caenorhabditis elegans is a developmentally arrested stage induced by starvation or overcrowding. Mutant genes controlling the ability to form dauer larvae interact in a way which allows them to be ordered in a pathway. Mutant phenotypes suggest that the pathway corresponds to neural processing of environmental stimuli.
We describe a comprehensive and general approach for mapping centromeres and present a detailed characterization of two maize centromeres. Centromeres are difficult to map and analyze because they consist primarily of repetitive DNA sequences, which in maize are the tandem satellite repeat CentC and interspersed centromeric retrotransposons of maize (CRM).… (More)
The anterior sensory ultrastructure of the C. elegans dauer larva was examined in several specimens and compared with that of the second-stage (L2) larva, which immediately precedes the dauer stage. In some instances comparisons were made with L3, postdauer L4, and adult stages. Whereas sensory structures in different nondauer stages closely resemble each… (More)
Rats can use both "proximal" and "distal" cues to locate goal objects in their environments (Morris, 1981). In the proximal-cue situation, local stimuli that spatially co-occur with the goal are available to guide behavior. In the distal-cue situation, there are no cues that co-occur with the goal object; thus to directly locate the goal, the rat must learn… (More)
As a sensory response to starvation or overcrowding, Caenorhabditis elegans second-stage larvae may molt into a developmentally arrested state called the dauer larva. When environmental conditions become favorable for growth, dauer larvae mold and resume development. Some mutants unable to form dauer larvae are simultaneously affected in a number of sensory… (More)
The development, ultrastructure, and genetics of two mutants that form dauer-like larvae have been characterized. Dauer larva morphogenesis is initiated regardless of environmental stimuli, and it is incomplete or abnormal. The resistance to detergent characteristic of normal dauer larvae is not fully achieved, and the mutants are unable to exit from the… (More)
The ancestral centromeres of maize contain long stretches of the tandemly arranged CentC repeat. The abundance of tandem DNA repeats and centromeric retrotransposons (CR) has presented a significant challenge to completely assembling centromeres using traditional sequencing methods. Here, we report a nearly complete assembly of the 1.85 Mb maize centromere… (More)