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Natural bacterial transformation involves the internalization and chromosomal integration of DNA and has now been documented in ~80 species. Recent advances have established that phylogenetically distant species share conserved uptake and processing proteins but differ in the inducing cues and regulatory mechanisms that are involved. In this Review, we(More)
Natural transformation is a mechanism for genetic exchange in many bacterial genera. It proceeds through the uptake of exogenous DNA and subsequent homology-dependent integration into the genome. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, this integration requires the ubiquitous recombinase, RecA, and DprA, a protein of unknown function widely conserved in bacteria. To(More)
Cysteine and methionine availability influences many processes in the cell. In bacteria, transcription of the specific genes involved in the synthesis of these two amino acids is usually regulated by different mechanisms or regulators. Pathways for the synthesis of cysteine and methionine and their interconversion were experimentally determined for(More)
In bacteria, several salvage responses to DNA replication arrest culminate in reassembly of the replisome on inactivated forks to resume replication. The PriA DNA helicase is a prominent trigger of this replication restart process, preceded in many cases by a repair and/or remodeling of the arrested fork, which can be performed by many specific proteins.(More)
The delivery of a ring-shaped hexameric helicase onto DNA is a fundamental step of DNA replication, conserved in all cellular organisms. We report the biochemical characterization of the bacterial hexameric replicative helicase DnaC of Bacillus subtilis with that of the two replication initiation proteins DnaI and DnaB. We show that DnaI and DnaB interact(More)
We have investigated the role of three IS911-specified proteins in transposition in vivo: the products of the upstream (OrfA) and downstream (OrfB) open reading frames, and a transframe protein (OrfAB) produced by -1 translational frameshifting between orfA and orfB. The production of OrfAB alone is shown to lead both to excision and to circularization of(More)
We show here that the protein InsA, which is encoded by IS1 and binds specifically to the terminal inverted repeats of this insertion sequence, negatively regulates IS1 transposition activity. We demonstrate that it inhibits both IS1-mediated cointegrate formation and transposition of a synthetic IS1-based transposon ('omegon'; omega-on). These results also(More)
An in vitro system has been developed which supports efficient integration of transposon circles derived from the bacterial insertion sequence IS911. Using relatively pure preparations of IS911-encoded proteins it has been demonstrated that integration into a suitable target required both the transposase, OrfAB, a fusion protein produced by translational(More)
A cell-free system is described that accomplishes an unusual type of transposition/recombination involving the bacterial insertion sequence IS911. Using a plasmid substrate carrying a derivative of IS911, we show that bacterial cell extracts enriched for the IS911 transposase, OrfAB, carry out a single-strand cleavage and transfer reaction. This results in(More)
Transformation promotes genome plasticity in bacteria via RecA-driven homologous recombination. In the gram-positive human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, the transformasome a multiprotein complex, internalizes, protects, and processes transforming DNA to generate chromosomal recombinants. Double-stranded DNA is internalized as single strands, onto which(More)