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Natural bacterial transformation involves the internalization and chromosomal integration of DNA and has now been documented in ~80 species. Recent advances have established that phylogenetically distant species share conserved uptake and processing proteins but differ in the inducing cues and regulatory mechanisms that are involved. In this Review, we(More)
Natural transformation is a mechanism for genetic exchange in many bacterial genera. It proceeds through the uptake of exogenous DNA and subsequent homology-dependent integration into the genome. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, this integration requires the ubiquitous recombinase, RecA, and DprA, a protein of unknown function widely conserved in bacteria. To(More)
Cysteine and methionine availability influences many processes in the cell. In bacteria, transcription of the specific genes involved in the synthesis of these two amino acids is usually regulated by different mechanisms or regulators. Pathways for the synthesis of cysteine and methionine and their interconversion were experimentally determined for(More)
We have investigated the role of three IS911-specified proteins in transposition in vivo: the products of the upstream (OrfA) and downstream (OrfB) open reading frames, and a transframe protein (OrfAB) produced by -1 translational frameshifting between orfA and orfB. The production of OrfAB alone is shown to lead both to excision and to circularization of(More)
A cell-free system is described that accomplishes an unusual type of transposition/recombination involving the bacterial insertion sequence IS911. Using a plasmid substrate carrying a derivative of IS911, we show that bacterial cell extracts enriched for the IS911 transposase, OrfAB, carry out a single-strand cleavage and transfer reaction. This results in(More)
In bacteria, several salvage responses to DNA replication arrest culminate in reassembly of the replisome on inactivated forks to resume replication. The PriA DNA helicase is a prominent trigger of this replication restart process, preceded in many cases by a repair and/or remodeling of the arrested fork, which can be performed by many specific proteins.(More)
The delivery of a ring-shaped hexameric helicase onto DNA is a fundamental step of DNA replication, conserved in all cellular organisms. We report the biochemical characterization of the bacterial hexameric replicative helicase DnaC of Bacillus subtilis with that of the two replication initiation proteins DnaI and DnaB. We show that DnaI and DnaB interact(More)
Transposable genetic elements have adopted two major strategies for their displacement from one site to another within and between genomes. One involves passage through an RNA intermediate prior to synthesis of a DNA copy while the other is limited uniquely to DNA intermediates. For both types of element, recombination reactions involved in integration are(More)
Primosomes are nucleoprotein assemblies designed for the activation of DNA replication forks. Their primary role is to recruit the replicative helicase onto single-stranded DNA. The "replication restart" primosome, defined in Escherichia coli, is involved in the reactivation of arrested replication forks. Binding of the PriA protein to forked DNA triggers(More)
The proteins expressed by insertion sequence IS911, a member of the widespread IS3 family of elements, have been analyzed. The results indicate that three major species are produced from two consecutive reading frames. A protein of Mr 11,500, ORFA, is synthesized from an upstream reading frame. A larger protein, ORFAB, uses the same initiation codon and is(More)