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Cysteine and methionine availability influences many processes in the cell. In bacteria, transcription of the specific genes involved in the synthesis of these two amino acids is usually regulated by different mechanisms or regulators. Pathways for the synthesis of cysteine and methionine and their interconversion were experimentally determined for(More)
Natural transformation is a mechanism for genetic exchange in many bacterial genera. It proceeds through the uptake of exogenous DNA and subsequent homology-dependent integration into the genome. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, this integration requires the ubiquitous recombinase, RecA, and DprA, a protein of unknown function widely conserved in bacteria. To(More)
Expression of the bacterial insertion sequence IS911 transposase in vivo leads to excision and circularization of IS911-based transposons. We show here that transposase produces an unusual molecular form generated by single-strand cleavage, transfer, and ligation of one end of the element to the opposite end. When the transposon is carried by a circular(More)
Bacteria encode a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein (SSB) crucial for genome maintenance. In Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, an alternative SSB, SsbB, is expressed uniquely during competence for genetic transformation, but its precise role has been disappointingly obscure. Here, we report our investigations involving comparison of(More)
We have investigated in vivo the role of the carboxy-terminal domain of the Bacillus subtilis Single-Stranded DNA Binding protein (SSB(Cter)) as a recruitment platform at active chromosomal forks for many proteins of the genome maintenance machineries. We probed this SSB(Cter) interactome using GFP fusions and by Tap-tag and biochemical analysis. It(More)
In bacteria, transformation and restriction-modification (R-M) systems play potentially antagonistic roles. While the former, proposed as a form of sexuality, relies on internalized foreign DNA to create genetic diversity, the latter degrade foreign DNA to protect from bacteriophage attack. The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is transformable and(More)
Genetic transformation, in which cells internalize exogenous DNA and integrate it into their chromosome, is widespread in the bacterial kingdom. It involves a specialized membrane-associated machinery for binding double-stranded (ds) DNA and uptake of single-stranded (ss) fragments. In the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, this machinery is(More)
Natural genetic transformation has been proposed as the bacterial equivalent of eukaryotic sexual reproduction, promoting genetic diversity. 1 Transformation involves internalization of foreign DNA in the form of single strands (ss), generated from a double-stranded (ds) sub-strate, which are recombined into the host genome by homology. Transformation is a(More)
Partial duplication of genetic material is prevalent in eukaryotes and provides potential for evolution of new traits. Prokaryotes, which are generally haploid in nature, can evolve new genes by partial chromosome duplication, known as merodiploidy. Little is known about merodiploid formation during genetic exchange processes, although merodiploids have(More)
Bacteria have evolved various inducible genetic programs to face many types of stress that challenge their growth and survival. Competence is one such program. It enables genetic transformation, a major horizontal gene transfer process. Competence development in liquid cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae is synchronized within the whole cell population.(More)