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The S100B astroglial protein is widely used as a parameter of glial activation and/or death in several conditions of brain injury. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum S100B variations have been proposed to evaluate clinical outcomes in these situations. Here, we briefly broach some aspects, commonly not sufficiently valorized, concerning the biology and(More)
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic, severe, and highly disabling psychiatric disorder; peripheral markers have been used to assess biochemical alterations associated with BD and/or possibly involved in its pathophysiology. Beyond neuronal commitment, many groups have proposed the involvement of glial activity in psychiatric disorders. Other biochemical(More)
The antioxidant compound, trans-resveratrol, is found in substantial amounts in several types of red wine and has been proposed to have beneficial effects in brain pathologies that may involve oxidative stress. The objective of the present study was to investigate the genoprotective effects of resveratrol under conditions of oxidative stress induced by(More)
S100B is a calcium-binding protein, produced and secreted by astrocytes, which has a putative paracrine neurotrophic activity. Clinical studies have suggested that peripheral elevation of this protein is positively correlated with a therapeutic antidepressant response, particularly to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); however, the mechanism(More)
Regular and moderate exercise has been considered an interesting neuroprotective strategy. Although the mechanisms by which physical exercise alters brain function are not clear, it appears that neuroprotective properties of exercise could be related to chromatin remodeling, specifically the induction of histone acetylation through modulation of histone(More)
S100B is an astrocyte calcium-binding protein that plays a regulatory role in the cytoskeleton and cell cycle. Moreover, extracellular S100B, a marker of glial activation in several conditions of brain injury, has a trophic or apoptotic effect on neurons, depending on its concentration. Hyperglycemic rats show changes in glial parameters, including S100B(More)
Glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) is used commonly as a marker of astrogliosis and astrocyte activation in several situations involving brain injury. Its content may be measured by immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), usually employing commercial antibodies. Two major post-translational modifications in GFAP(More)
Although inflammation may be a physiological defense process, imbalanced neuroinflammation has been associated with the pathophysiology of brain disorders, including major depression and schizophrenia. Activated glia releases a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines that contribute to neuronal dysfunction. Elevated levels of S100B, a glia derived protein,(More)
Hippocampal slices have been widely used to investigate electrophysiological and metabolic neuronal parameters, as well as parameters of astroglial activity including protein phosphorylation and glutamate uptake. S100B is an astroglial-derived protein, which extracellularly plays a neurotrophic activity during development and excitotoxic insult. Herein, we(More)
Several molecules have been shown to be involved in glial-neuronal communication, including S100B, an astrocyte-derived neurotrophic cytokine. Extracellular S100B protects hippocampal neurons from excitotoxic damage, whilst toxic levels of glutamate to neurons have been shown to reduce S100B secretion in astrocytes and brain slices, by an unknown mechanism.(More)