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To provide detailed information and insight into the drug-target interaction, structure, solvation, and dynamic and thermodynamic properties, the three known-neuraminidase inhibitors-oseltamivir (OTV), zanamivir (ZNV), and peramivir (PRV)-embedded in the catalytic site of neuraminidase (NA) subtype N1 were studied using molecular dynamics simulations. In(More)
Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out for the mutant oseltamivir-NA complex, to provide detailed information on the oseltamivir-resistance resulting from the H274Y mutation in neuraminidase (NA) of avian influenza H5N1 viruses. In contrast with a previous proposal, the H274Y mutation does not prevent E276 and R224 from forming the hydrophobic(More)
To understand how antiviral drugs inhibit the replication of influenza A virus via the M2 ion channel, molecular dynamics simulations have been applied to the six possible protonation states of the M2 ion channel in free form and its complexes with two commercial drugs in a fully hydrated lipid bilayer. Among the six different states of free M2 tetramer,(More)
Molecular dynamics simulations of the drug-resistant M2 mutants, A30T, S31N, and L26I, were carried out to investigate the inhibition of M2 activity using amantadine (AMT). The closed and open channel conformations were examined via non- and triply protonated H37. For the nonprotonated state, these mutants exhibited zero water density in the conducting(More)
Direct structural insights on the fundamental mechanisms of permeation, selectivity, and gating remain unavailable for the Na(+) and Ca(2+) channel families. Here, we report the spectroscopic structural characterization of the isolated Voltage-Sensor Domain (VSD) of the prokaryotic Na(+) channel NaChBac in a lipid bilayer. Site-directed spin-labeling and(More)
To reveal the source of oseltamivir-resistance in influenza (A/H5N1) mutants, the drug-target interactions at each functional group were investigated using MD/LIE simulations. Oseltamivir in the H274Y mutation primarily loses the electrostatic and the vdW interaction energies at the -NH(3)(+) and -OCHEt(2) moieties corresponding to the weakened(More)
The recent outbreak of the novel strain of influenza A (H1N1) virus has raised a global concern of the future risk of a pandemic. To understand at the molecular level how this new H1N1 virus can be inhibited by the current anti-influenza drugs and which of these drugs it is likely to already be resistant to, homology modeling and MD simulations have been(More)
Molecular dynamics simulations (MD) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) complexed with the four non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): efavirenz (EFV), emivirine (EMV), etravirine (ETV) and nevirapine (NVP), were performed to examine the structures, binding free energies and the importance of water(More)
The origin of the high pathogenicity of an emerging avian influenza H5N1 due to the -RRRKK- insertion at the cleavage loop of the hemagglutinin H5, was studied using the molecular dynamics technique, in comparison with those of the noninserted H5 and H3 bound to the furin (FR) active site. The cleavage loop of the highly pathogenic H5 was found to bind(More)
Combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) techniques have been applied to investigate the detailed reaction mechanism of the first step of the acylation process by furin in which the cleavage site of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 (HPH5) acts as its substrate. The energy profile shows a simultaneous mechanism, known(More)