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The flatness and cosmological constant problems are solved with varying speed of light c, gravitational coupling strength G and cosmological parameter Λ, by explicitly assuming energy conservation of observed matter. The present solution to the flatness problem is the same as a previous solution in which energy conservation was absent.
We have treated the adiabatic matter creation process in various three-brane models by applying thermodynamics of open systems. The matter creation rate is found to affect the evolution of scale factor and energy density of the universe. We find modification at early stages of cosmic dynamics. In GB and RS brane worlds, by chosing appropriate parameters we… (More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of primary in situ extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for the treatment of ureteric calculi in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS The Wolf 2500 Piezolith was used to treat 63 children (aged 4 months to 12 years) with 76 ureteric calculi, including 10 children with impacted calculi. The calculi were located in 14… (More)