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In 1969 , John McCarthy , the mathematician who coined the term " Artificial Intelligence , " joined forces with another AI researcher , Patrick Hayes , and coined another term, " the frame problem. " It seemed to be a devil of a problem , perhaps even a mortal blow to the hopes of AI. It looked to me like a new philosophical or epistemological problem ,(More)
Concept Maps are seen as ways to conceptualize domains that can be comprehended within the human attention span, and are often based on terminologies arising in technical, scientific or engineering domains. We report on a set of related projects that go beyond this tradition in two ways: by connecting CmapTools to the new, machine-processable standard(More)
The meaningful integration and comprehension of data from many different sources poses a difficult challenge for the Intelligence Community. Establishing the underlying semantics of that data and developing semantics for new or specialized scenarios is a key part of the solution to that challenge. The emerging Semantic Web technologies address this(More)
Resolving conceptual conflicts between formalized ontologies is likely to become a major engineering problem as ontologies move into widespread use on the semantic web. We believe that in the immediate and medium-term future, conflict resolution will require the use of human collaboration, and cannot be achieved by automated methods except in simple cases.(More)
We construct a quantum black-box algorithm that computes the majority of N bits exactly using N + 1 ? w(N) queries, where w(N) denotes the number of ones in the binary expansion of N. We establish a matching lower bound in a generalized classical decision tree model in which the equivalent of our quantum algorithm is optimal. We also provide an exact(More)
As part of a larger project, one of our goals is to enable users, not trained in AI, to be able to pose questions to an inference-capable knowledge base (KB), and receive acceptable answers. In particular, we wish the system to support answering a wide variety of questions , including longer questions which may include scenario descriptions, without(More)
This paper presents the working draft MOF™ (Meta-Object Facility) metamodel for Simple Common Logic (SCL), one of six metamodels currently envisioned for the Ontology Definition Metamodel (ODM) standards effort in the Object Management Group (OMG®). SCL is positioned for use as a constraint language for the ODM, an alternative to OCL for those who need(More)
The details of reasoning in RDF [2] and RDFS [1] are generally well known. There is a model-theoretic semantics for RDF [3, 4] and there are sound and complete proof theories for RDF without datatypes [6]. However, the model-theoretic characteristics of RDF 3 have been less studied, particularly when datatypes are added. We show that RDF reasoning can be(More)